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加拿大york宗教哲学硕士assignment高分代写:religious paper

加拿大york宗教哲学硕士assignment高分代写:religious paper
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Introduction

There was no religious freedom during the British colonial period. At that time, there was a very harsh decree of religious despotism. Those who had no religion belief suffered from discrimination and persecution. And the areas controlled by factions of the Protestantism believers also discriminate against other factions. Before the formation of the United State, it has occurred dynamic religion revolution during the colonial era. Some branches of Protestantism started to take over the power and control. As it referred to the immigrant colonial, there were requisite resistances. This paper will summarize the power of the religion control respectively in 1600s, 1700s and 1800s, and analyze the reason why the religions come into being and through example to show the rebelProtestantism.

 

Two main took-over religions in 1600s

In 1520s, religious reform movement initiated by Martin Luther in Germany quickly caused great repercussions. In the middle of the 16th century, three major denominations of the Protestant: the Lutheranism founded by Martin Luther, the Calvinism founded by John Calvin and the Church of England (Anglican Church), had emerged in Europe to compete with the Roman Catholic Church.

In the beginning of 1600s, many Europeans started to immigrate into North America. As a result, they also brought with the religion. The driving force of the first settlers to immigrate to North America was for economic reason but not religion. The Anglican Church was brought to Jamestown in Virginia by the British colonials to continue to take over the power. However, the Puritans, as a rebel Protestantism in England, were allowed by the King James to establish in the New England. In a word, most of early Puritans were driven out of their own country to America by the stress of religious persecution.

During the 1630s, the Puritans rapidly grew stronger because of a large influx of immigrants from England. Yet even in those early years, they found much difficulty in maintaining a perfect religious harmony(Edwin 7). In the mid-17th century, as a banner of the bourgeois revolution, the Puritan movement in England required compromise with conservative Anglican Church through Calvinist reform, has become, which pushed further the Protestant movement.

Under the autocratic control of the Anglican Church in the south colonial and the Puritanism in the New England, some individuals and groups began to challenge the established churches and clergy. Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island, was banned from the Massachusetts for his religious beliefs and support in the separation of church and state. While Anne Hutchinson, a woman rebel, also sticked to her religious belief and opposed the authority of the established church.

 

The 1700s (Eighteenth Century)

Through the Great Awakening during 1730s-1760s, the evangelical Protestantism came into being and spread fast. The whole belief it supported was that people can be reborn, which had challenged the authorities of the Anglican Church and the Puritanism. The major Evangelical denomination was the Baptists and the Methodists, and the latter one was founded by John Wesley who was opposed to Calvinism.

Whitefield was the central figure in a diffuse movement called the Great Awakening. This movement was not a tightly organized affaire, but rather a series of memorable preaching occasions that sparked a major turn toward a more personal, emotional, inward, and experiential religion(Mark 44). The evangelical Protestantism concentrated on common people's emotional belief. They believed that people were supported by the Holy Spirits but not the government authorities. As a result, they were seeking ways to disestablish the churches.

The beliefs of the Enlightenment and Deism had also been the challenges to the authority of the established churches in the English colonies. The Deism inevitably undermined the personal religion of the Judeo-Christian tradition(David 47). Although many efforts were made by the Anglican Church and the Puritans to crack down the Baptists and the Methodists, Thomas Jefferson, one of the enlightenment thinkers, and other minority branches won the final struggle.

In 1787, the U.S. Constitution was ratified, and in 1791, The Bill of Rights was added to the U.S. Constitution, including the First Amendment. The United States became an independent country which supported religious freedom strongly.

 

The 1800s (Nineteenth Century)

In the 19th century, religion was influenced by the progress of social science and the emerging of evolution. From the late 1790s to 1830s, the Second Great Awakening, a religious revival, had made great efforts to the American religious freedom and reform. The purpose of the Second Great Awakening was the same as the First one which maintained that the Holy Spirit of Jesus was the one to believe not the government authorities of the Anglican Churches.

Through the Second Great Awakening, evangelical Protestants which were mainly formed by Methodists and Baptists had become the essential form of religion in the early United States. The Second Great Awakening had effects that extended beyond American Protestantism. The period has been called a “ shopkeeper 's millenniumbecause nascent capitalists used church membership and the admonition to work and avoid sin as a means of instilling discipline in workers accustomed to being independent artisans.

During this time, the Catholic was very prevailed in America. However the Protestants rejected the increasing numbers of Catholics in the U.S. In spite of the dominant control of the Protestants both from culture and politic, the supporters like Bishop John Hughes had tried their best to unify the Catholics and establish their own churches. Still in America today, many people have faithful belief on the Catholics.

During the late 1700s and the beginning of the 1800s, many Africans immigrated to or were sold to the Independent America. Most of them were treated as slaves who had founded their own slavery religion and established the African American Churches (also called the Black Churches). Then in the United States, White people who believed the evangelicals from the south part used to undertake religion to judge slavery. On the other hand, the northern evangelicals were associated with the African American evangelicals, which shared the same evangelism but not the same message, opposed slavery through the belief of the Bible. As a result, it began the Civil War, which was regarded by Frederick Douglass as the punishment of the God on the cruel slavery.

 

 

References

David L. Holmes. The faiths of the founding fathers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Edwin S. Gaustad. Proclaim liberty throughout all the land: A history of church and state in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Mark A. Noll. The work we have to do: A history of Protestants in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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