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英国伯明翰大学University of Birmingham 公共关系硕士assignment代写论文案例

英国伯明翰大学University of Birmingham 公共关系硕士assignment代写论文案例
  • 国家 : 英国
  • 级别 : 硕士
  • 专业 :
A nation draws attention from all over the world by hosting mega events. For both Beijing Olympics in 2008 and London Olympics in 2012, expectations were running high that China and the UK would make full use of the opportunity to promote positive images to the world. The article discussed the ways in which Beijing 2008 ceremonies and London 2012 ceremonies are reported by both Chinese media and British media. This article will also take a critical look at discourse in ceremonies as a public diplomacy tool. Two main propositions will be addressed: firstly, the assumption that mega event would help promote positive image of a country is overrated. Secondly, news framing are under its specified cultural context and differentiated framing causes diversified audience perception.

详细描述

 

 

Module Name:

Global Media and Journalism

 

Abstract

A nation draws attention from all over the world by hosting mega events. For both Beijing Olympics in 2008 and London Olympics in 2012, expectations were running high that China and the UK would make full use of the opportunity to promote positive images to the world. The article discussed the ways in which Beijing 2008 ceremonies and London 2012 ceremonies are reported by both Chinese media and British media. This article will also take a critical look at discourse in ceremonies as a public diplomacy tool. Two main propositions will be addressed: firstly, the assumption that mega event would help promote positive image of a country is overrated. Secondly, news framing are under its specified cultural context and differentiated framing causes diversified audience perception.

Keywords

International media; nation branding; China; the United Kingdom; Olympic ceremony

Introduction:

Mega events, which is defined as large-scale cultural events of international significance and mass popular appeal (Roche, 2000,p.1). Mega event is also considered to be a strategy of place branding and a mean to win advantage in capital, people and attraction competition (Hall, 2006, p. 59). ‘From 1980s, sports mega events have become the first and foremost desires and dreams of power alliance combining corporate interest with those of government with respect to place branding, in both a symbolically and “concrete” sense of the world’, Wolfram (2010) stated in his studies. Although all researches of the economic impact of hosting sport mega events have suggested that there are no magic growth engine as they are supposed to be (e.g., Manzenreiter, 2008a; Schimmel, 2001; Szymanski, 2002), there are still many countries biding for hosting Olympic Games. They believe it is a good opportunity to advertise a coherent and positive image to the world, even though gain only a limited economic profit.

The Olympic ceremonies, and especially the opening ceremony, are considered to be condensers of a nation’s expectations. The popularity is like a barometer that reflects the acceptance of the nation image by outsiders. Regulated by protocol specified by Olympic Charter, Olympic ceremonies are artistic programs and are supposed to present the culture of the host nation. Both universal ideals such as humanism and peaceful internationalism and distinct identity of the host country are to be expressed (Puijk, 1994, p. 101) After years of effort on organizing ceremonies, a host nation is expecting to be recognised by the international community as well as be affirmed and celebrated on its national identity. National identity is not a static entity but more of constantly negotiating and reformulating. The director and actors involved in Olympic ceremonies are not only to deliver what the country is already known to the world but also to transform it and model it. Jackie Hogan believes that the Olympics are “key sites in the discursive construction of nation”, and their ceremonies are representations that constitute discourses of national identity. Stuart Hall called it “narrative of nation”, that is “a set of stories, images, landscapes, scenarios, historical events, national symbols and rituals which stand for or present the shared experiences, sorrows, triumphs and disasters which give meaning to the nation”(Hall,1992,p.293).

Literature Review 

A large number of previous studies have suggested that mass media plays a crucial role in guiding public opinion and framing events (Gamson and Modigliani, 1989). Meanwhile, mega events, such as Beijing Olympics, could not be framed within ideological and cultural contexts, and each host country is attempting to advertise the country through it. Olympic game is no longer a sports competition, but a representation of the role of a country in the international stage.  Media reports produce national images by making a nation real and tangible in the process of providing numerous images and symbols.  Basically, the audience, or outside individual picture the host country from what the media has provide.

Differences between Chinese and British media system

China and the UK are differed in politics, economy, culture and almost all other aspects, those pertain to the political and media systems may be one of the most critical one. These fundamental differences shaped their own media infrastructure and the system supporting it. British media systems and the Chinese media system are put at opposite poles of the press model continuum based on the four theory of the press (siebert et al.,1956). And the former one is the model of the libertarian press while the latter is the totalitarian communist model.

As an authoritarian model and effective controlled by the government, Chinese media still live with strict censorship and tight government control, in spite of sharp change in politics and economy and the on-going commercialization of the press.(Huang, 2003; Lee, 2000; Winfield and Peng, 2005; Zhao, 1998). Media in China are considered to be mouthpiece of the government. It is an instrument of national narrative, and contributes in promoting national perspectives in international relationships. Many scholars believed that the nation’s mainstream media’s agenda over international news reporting keep the same pace with the government shifts in foreign policy. For Chinese media, the political reason is to safeguard national interests, while the technical reason is that gathering news resources are often limited. For example, due to strategic consideration, China didn’t show a clear-cut attitude and strong position as other nations such as France and Germany toward the second Iraq war. Salient opposition stance set the agenda and frames for the press. Technically, newsgathering resources of other news media rely on government sources for international reporting.  Xinhua news agency is the state news agency and providing sources from government.

Holding the view that “the happiness and well-being of the individual is the goal of society”, (Siebert et al., 1956, p. 40) libertarian press model believe that they should take the responsibility of policing the government, informing and entertaining the public. Meanwhile, it positions itself as the watch dog of the government instead of the mouthpiece of the government. Most media companies are owned by the private, and government can only step in when serious matters concerned. With the guidance of this model, press control could be achieved in the form of “community opinion, consumer action and professional ethics”. Free flow of ideas is supposed to acknowledge the public so that they can discern what is true and what is not. People get diversified information and choices regarding the same events. However, libertarian press model is still facing obstacles. As samples from libertarian model, The UK media and American media are becoming more market-driven. Increasing revenue becomes much important as the media expand, such as Murdoch scandal. At the meantime, the function of delivery public service is being weakened.

 

Disappointed by the Tiananmen crackdown while impressed by the rapid economic development China has achieved, British media believed they are now facing diversified and unpredictable China. Highly negative images and inherent stereotypes about the socio-political evolution of China are still at great lengths. However, The UK’s economy has been tightly tied with China. The focus of the media coverage about China was placed on a much more global context. The emphasis have been expanded from economic achievement, human rights and reconstructions in other third world countries to cultural events, and relationship with Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Framing Theory

‘News is a socially created product, not a reflection of an objective reality’ (shoemaker and reese,1991). Frame is the way through which content is generated. It is proved that different framing of the same content produce different audience understanding. Thus, framing is one of the most important aspects in news coverage. Entman (1991:7) pointed out that news frames are embodied in’ key words, metaphor, concepts, symbols and visual images emphasised in a news narrative’. In the case of reporting a certain country, three frames are salient in media’s coverage: the political frame, the ideological frame, and the economic frame. News frame is always inevitable and taken for granted, but it is crucial to news reporting since it determines what to focus and what to ignore.

Political frame

Political frames refer to the news frame of media mainly reflecting their own government’s political agenda and foreign policy. Previous studies provide evidence showing   there were evident connections between the press and policies of government (chang,1988). The news frame appealed a common foe or friend tendency in narrative. For example, in the national day troop review held in 2009 in Beijing, the then president Hu Jintao delivered  a speech containing the words’ great Chinese people live forever, and great Chinese communist party live forever’. However, when reported by the Guardian, only ‘great Chinese communist party live forever’ was presented in the news, and this sentence is over-emphasised and repeated with the intention to present how Chinese communist party ‘brainwash’ its people. Western media often put an equal sign to communist government with an aging, inept leadership.  Another rule of narrative is less developing countries’ images were rarely positive. For comparing, China Daily, which is considered as the most important English press in China, published an article entitled ‘New York tourists stunned by lavish US campaign spending’ in 7th November. It indicates that Chinese press keep a relatively negative tone to election under the circumstance that China is still a socialism country where the president is being pointed instead of being elected.

Ideological frame

This frame includes ideological, cultural and social value. Reporting of Western news media often keep the same tone with its dominant ideology of the host country. News reporting is motivated more by ideology than by newsworthiness. Regards to China, it is usually highly critical when the issue is about the domestic circumstance in China, especially when the circumstances that emerge in China clash with western cultural principals. In the Olympic period, the media are expected to inform the public with how much preparing work has been covered, what to expect during the Olympic games, and what else is worthy paying attention to apart from sport itself.  The media chose and selected information to help the public understand the content.  According to Gross (2006), “frames will, by highlighting certain aspects of an event or policy, guide audience members’ thoughts about the event or issue in predictable ways to a predictable conclusion. “

The presumption of framing analysis is that information is filtered by journalists in ways that affect the decoding of the audience of issues, stories or events (lowery&defleur,1995,p327). When journalists work on making sense of an event, they are engaged in a process of news framing that can dictate how they cover it. (Tuchman,1978). By selectively presenting and emphasising some certain issues over others, journalists are able to influence attitudes and behaviour of audience.  Thus, to understanding news framing is essential to understanding how the public view an event or a place.

A large number of media have examined how the news media in each country, including China and western countries such as the U.S and The UK, have framed numerous events and issues.  For instance, many differences have been found in Chinese and the west news framing of political events, for instance, reconstruction in Darfur, the conflict between China and Japan over the territorial sovereignty of Diaoyu Island, and a North Korean nuclear test.  Similarly, studies also suggest that there are differences in Chinese and western media over issues of public health such as SARS, HIV/AIDS, and H1N1 Avian flu. As Vasterman et al.(2005) pointed out,  both  “balanced frame” and  “one sided frame” can be adopted in structuring mega events news. Generally, media from host country and its pro countries consistent social actors or government propaganda while others may concentrate on shocking or unusual events. 

Economic frame

Economic development of a country is valued above political and ideological conflicts in economic frame. The globalization of world economy contributed largely to economic frame. Reports focus more on economics, health, and the environment issues than covering international affairs only. Reporters are seeking unifying themes that create relevant meanings between domestic agenda and the whole world.  One of the nations under study, China, ranks the second of the world in total economy, and the sustainable economic development is a key priority of Chinese government. With dramatically economic increase and the growth of large-scale European investment in China, western media including British media tend to cover more issues with this economic frame. And, rationally, Chinese journalists from mainstream media would consistent the government and report with economic frame too.  The other nation under the study, the United Kingdom, is a major importer of Chinese goods, and created a bilateral trade volume of 60 billion US dollars with China in 2008. In fact, few British can live without purchasing products made in China. Furthermore, China hold more global market share than before while the great economic power of The UK is shrinking. Accordingly, the UK, as well as the whole western world, tends to believe they are facing not only opportunities and benefits but also potential threats from economic growth of China. To conclude, British journalists would devote more critical scrutiny to many detailed aspects along with more attention paid to ‘innovation economy’, ‘high-tech economy’ and ‘green economy’ .

Visual framing

Visual image is used among varies framing devices, such as metaphors, exemplars, catch phrases and visual images (Gamson and Lasch, 1983). Visual images differ from verbal words to some extent when people are making sense and evaluating information. The distinctive features of visual image from words play different role in the framing process (Mandell and Shaw, 1973).  Entman (1993) pointed out that the presence (or lack of) an image and the content of a news photograph devote to determining the interpretation of a news event. The dual-code theory, mainly generated by Paivio (1986), suggests visual and verbal cues are different and that pictures are stored in memory in a qualitatively different and separate way from verbal materials (Kolers & Brison, 1984; Kroll & Potter, 1984; Paivio, 1971, 1986). It is believed that visual and verbal information are being processed in different systems. However, these two subsystems are interrelated, which is to say information can be transferred between these two systems and are supposed to achieve acknowledged goal. In dual-code theory, presentations of pictorial information with verbal information can strengthen and complete verbal information (Burgoon, 1985; Folger & Woodall, 1982; Gunter, 1987; Stone, 1987).For example, ’He’ was strongly featured in the opening ceremony of Beijing Olympic Games. ‘He’ was displayed with its ancient and modern forms with the operation of hundreds actors. It forms the Chinese word of ‘peace’ and ‘harmony’, and the idea of social harmony has been delivered and comprehended as a Chinese ideal with the help of humbling visual presentation.

Sources:

Sources play an important role in influencing media biases and orientation of frames. Entman (1993) found that the news media get not only information but also definitions of the protest situation. Later in 1998, Hertog suggested that official sources are used to add prestige to news stories and empower the illusion of objectivity. Previous studies suggest that journalists managed to establish connections with the “elite” sources because of their higher credibility (Bennett,1990). Sources from core politicians or party operatives are often adopted as sources in news report, especially when it comes to political issue. Bennett also argued that such action of relying on authoritative sources allow parties concerned to exert influence over the discourse by influencing the encoding. The conclusion is that sources are essential in news report. 

To provide a descriptive overview of how Chinese and UK news media covered the ceremonies of both Olympics, the present study asks research questions as follows:

RQ1: What other topics apart from the event itself did Chinese and UK media cover in the report of four ceremonies, including previous reports and follow-up reports?

The research then comes to its major concern: how the news media in each nation framed the ceremonies:

RQ2: Did Chinese and UK media differ in how they framed the ceremonies? Furthermore, did they, and how did they differ in reporting Olympics held in their own country and Olympics held in the other country?

The Guardian and China Daily were chosen as representative newspapers in both countries because of their prominence and influence. The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper and established since 19 century. It has an average daily circulation of 215998 and ranks the third in UK.  The guardian is part of the GMC Guardian Media Group of newspapers, radio stations, print media, and they are owned by The Scott Trust. China Daily is the widest printed English-language newspaper in China and it was established in 1981. It is thought of as the English-language “window to China” and is used as guidance to government policies. It is published by satellite in the United States, Hong Kong, and Europe.  Claimed to be resemble western journalism, China Daily is still under control of the government. It is convincing to choose them, and one could expect coverage from each source to reflect the ideology and economic contexts illustrated in previous words.

Method

The method of content analysis was used in this study.

Berelson (1952:13) defined content analysis as a ‘research for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication’. This method codifies the text (or content) into different groups (or categories) according to some criteria (Milne and Adler, 1999; Weber, 1988, 1990). It is frequently used in news coverage studies, and can help researchers underline attitudes, biases or repeat themes (Rubin and Piele, 1986). This study is to analyse differences in news coverage of opening and closing ceremonies of Olympic Games, including the prevailing tone and news frames used; thus, content analysis is considered to be an appropriate method.

Samples and Unit of Analysis

 Articles forming the sample of this study were found under the search headlines of “Olympic ceremony”, “Beijing” or “London”, and they are from both newspapers’ official websites (http://www.Chinadaily.com.cn/and http://www.guardian.co.uk/  respectively). Because the search produced a disproportionately larger number of articles from the hosting nation’s newspaper, a sample from collection of Chinese and UK articles were selected using simple random sampling technique. The reporting period is from the beginning of 2008 and 2012 to the end of 2008 and 2012, news on the day that ceremonies were on going will be highlighted and analysed with high importance. Applying these criteria, 20 news reports from The Guardian and 30 from China Daily were chosen reporting ceremonies in Beijing Olympics, and 30 from The Guardian and 20 from China Daily were chosen reporting ceremonies in London Olympics. Usually a content analysis in a framing study examines framing devices such as headlines, leads, and closing paragraphs. The rest of the news story is made up pf “core news facts”.  Commentary articles were excluded from the analysis.

The unit of analysis was the article. Certain elements of each article were recorded: date, source, tone (favourable, unfavourable, neutral) illustration, frame (economic consequences, ideology, humane care, environmentally-friendly, high-tech, peace and friendship), topic (the main subject of the article or what it is about), headline focal point, and framing approaches.

Due to some objective conditions, there is only one coder in this research, and the coder examined the articles in this census of the online version of The Guardian and China Daily, which totalled 100 items.

Results and discussion

Frames used to frame Beijing Olympic opening ceremony

The study covers a census of 100 total news items, among which most items of China Daily are from Xinhua news agency (76%), which is the state news agency of China, while most items of The Guardian are from Reuters (56%) and Press Association (28%).

 

The study initially started with four frames but added additional frames such as humane care and peace and friendship. Economic frame, and ideology frame have been discussed in literature review, and they can be applied in most of news reports of major events. The others, such as humane care as well as peace and friendship, which is what the Olympic organisers and the international Olympics committee managed to address.

 

Not really surprised, only China Daily reported Beijing Olympics ceremony using humane care frame. China Daily described how workers in Bird’s nest are memorised and respected, and it emphasised that the name of every builder was engraved on the pillar of stadium. Actually, part of Beijing Olympics’ slogan is “people’s Olympic” (renwen aoyun). It is not a clear defined concept, and it is not a harbinger to the international community to improve human right condition as understood by some foreign scholars. It can be interpreted as “Olympic game is an opportunity of training Chinese people to adapt to a globalized world, or the mix of Chinese and western culture for respective benefit. The latter perception was also reflected in the official Olympic slogan “One World, One Dream” (tongyige shijie, tongyige mengxiang).

 

Different from Japan and South Korea, who considered the games as a method to strengthen recognition by the international community, China was urgent to reemphasis the basic Olympic principles and to “promote a harmonization and civilized world”. The Chinese character of “harmony”, which is “和”,has been on display for nearly 3 minutes along with movable type printing. And the Olympic mascots and the presence of the ethnic minorities escorting the national flag at the opening ceremony both present a harmonious message. China’ Daily managed to contribute an image of harmony by both OCT report and adorned report. The report mentioned situations in every region of China, and the particular description of situation in Urumqi could be considered as reemphasising territory with the purpose of building nation image of national unity (minzu tuanjie).

In downtown Shanghai, China's biggest city, Friday night, buildings were outlined by twinkling lights and decorations. Local people wearing T-shirts reading "Go China!" and "One World, One Dream" gathered together to watch the opening ceremony.

In Urumqi, capital of northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Memet Ismail's family began preparing supper an hour earlier than normal days -- just for watching the opening ceremony on TV on time and without distraction.

However, it seems that western media, at least The Guardian, didn’t approve it. The following is a single paragraph on The Guardian on 9th August, 2008:

 ''One world, one dream,'' they say. Yes, but only in the imagination of marketing men. The question that is as eternal as the flame which has been carried in troubled progress around the world from Athens since March is: what next? If the wise men of the International Olympic Committee ever award the Games to the moon, or maybe Mars, perhaps then the pyrotechnics will be of such unimaginable brilliance, we will say, ''Okay, that's enough.''

For China Daily’s reporting on Beijing Olympic ceremony, another two concepts of “Green Olympics” and “High Tech Olympics”, which coordinated   international concerns with China’s domestic policy, are emphasised in a environmentally-friendly frame and high-tech frame. “Green Olympics” attempted to deliver a promise in order to dilute the criticism of China’s pollution problems from several western countries, which had become a salient irritant in China’s external relationships. Olympic officials also repeated their concern for the health condition of athletes and the possible impact on outdoor events. In response, China spent huge sum of money for reducing carbon emissions. Environmental measures were accorded with international standards from the United Nations Environmental Program (DeLisle, 2009, p. 188).

“Environmentally –friendly frame “has been frequently used by China Daily. Here is a paragraph from its news on 8th August 2008.

Promoting green games

Volkswagen Group China provided a green fleet consisting of 30 vehicles to the Beijing Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games (BOCOG) and Beijing Olympics Main Press Center (MPC) by working closely with the joint venture partners. These vehicles represent Volkswagen's world-leading powertrain technologies, including the TSI petrol engines, TDI diesel engines, DSG dual-clutch transmission, EcoFuel and BlueMotion.

However, there is no any use of “environmentally-friendly frame” found on The Guardian that day.

 

Instead of using environmentally-friendly frame and high-tech frame, of which the concepts are Chinese government tried to promote, The Guardian focuses a lot on “economic frame” and “ideology frame”. It attempted to keep a neutral tone when reporting the opening ceremony. The title and subtitle of the main article in 8th August 2008 is:

Olympics: Beijing unveils the £20bn dream

Three billion watch Beijing 2008 open in spectacular fashion

The article also provides a detailed list of all entries, and, the conclusion is “It's better than war. Though probably not much cheaper”.  Although western media have focused more on economy issues because of dramatically increase of China’s economy, their attitude are generally negative. According to a survey from 2007 and 2008, all countries have been alarmed by both China’s economic and military power, especially in the United States, Europe and Japan since they consider it as troublesome.

Another frame, “ideology frame” has been used thoroughly. The item “human right”, “Taiwan and Tibet” and “centralization” have been mentioned for 11 times in the reports on 8th and 9th the August. And when those issues were mentioned, the tone is usually negative.  The inertia of Western media to illustrate their own understanding of China comes first and it is because that they are not willing to abandon their own country’s dominance over economy and politics in international stage. Mainstream media in the west believe that they are playing the role of maintaining the master narrative on the heavenly principal of societies that put the west at the peak of human civilization. Instead of creating the possibility for a critical exploration of other modes and views, the media make effort to reinforcing national stereotypes of China. According to a survey in 2007, neither the Chinese nor American trusts the accuracy of their portrayal in the other country’s news media.

Frames used to frame London Olympic opening ceremony

The motto of London Olympic Games is “inspire a generation”.  According to Chairman Lord Coe, the measurement of success at the London Olympics will be the extent to which young people are inspired to take up sport and achieve personal bests in other areas of their lives. The assumption of frame used in reporting London Olympic is “inspiring the young” and “celebrating”, and there is possibly some “comparing frame” since there have been a lot comparison between London Olympic and Beijing Olympic.

The Guardian used both “celebrating frame” and “comparing frame” indeed. In its report on 29th July, 2012, a comment from Ai weiwei occupied 20% of the whole report. Ai is a famous anti-communist person and be called “culture rogue” by some public intellectuals in China. His main idea is that London Olympic opening ceremony is a happy party, and the organisers presented the best and a real Britain to the world. He also commented and compared the Beijing Olympic:

There were historical elements in the Beijing opening ceremony, but the difference is that this was about individuals and humanity and true feelings; their passion, their hope, their struggle. That came through in their confidence and joy. It's really about a civil society. Ours only reflected the party's nationalism. It wasn't a natural reflection of China.

For my position, it cannot be denied that The Guardian is trying to safeguard the national image of a “Great” Britain and not to be faded by comparing with China when it quoted words from a radical anti-communist person and put it at the first part of the first forum the day after opening ceremony.

Apart from comments by Ai weiwei, the Guardian also quoted some comments from British athletes and Londoners, most of their words are expressing their praise and sending their wishes to both the sports game and the ceremonies. Nicholas Kenyon coped with the motto tightly and heis an observer critic and managing director of the Barbican Centre:

Nicholas Kenyon: Music from the iPod shuffle generation

……

It wasn't quite a New Jerusalem, yet. To create a newly reconciled Britain of old and new, tradition and innovation – that is surely a task beyond any single event, even the most watched TV spectacular in the world.

The first several scenes of the opening ceremony, which presented industry revolution and memory of the martyrs, evoked collective memories of all British and it also reminded the world how largely the Britain has contributed in human civilization.

The frame China Daily use to when reporting London Olympic opening ceremony is mainly “celebrating frame”. There are 7 pictures presented with some small episode describing connotation of the scenes, with no any comments.  One reason could be that its English reports are 'polished' by several expatriate editors employed on short-term contracts, and that could be one of the reason why there’s few negative words about London Olympics.

Conclusion

In theory, hosting mega events could help a nation promote positive its image, while in practice there are many factors that can influence the perception of nation image.   Fan (2006) argued in his book that there are three major reasons make it difficult to branding a nation. Firstly, brand image of a nation is likely to be complex and diffuse. Secondly, it is difficult to communicate a single image or message to audiences in different countries with different backgrounds. Finally, longstanding stereotypes and cultural associations are a notable obstacle for branding a nation as the present government wants.

It seems that Chinese government failed to build a brand-new China by hosting the Olympics in terms of promoting nation image of “globalized”, “harmonious” and “environmentally friendly”. Political and ideology issues such as human rights, Tibet and Taiwan issue, Darfur andNeo-colonialismhave been paid much attention by western media. 75% of samples from The Guardian are using ideology frame and political frame rather than report the Olympics itself.The UK also failed in winning over Chinese audience in terms of promoting the nation image of “innovation” and “inspiring new generation”. Although there are few negative framed reports in China Daily toward London Olympics, there are few words consistent with the motto “inspiring a generation” either. It is worth mention that there are some previous reports promoting London as a fascinating tourist destination in China Daily, and to promote tourist industry is in the proposal of London Olympic Organising Committee.

Sports have been turning into a major content for globalization of media markets (Manzenreiter, 2008b).  Mega events become the method of global capital and political elites for their own needs. Media “tailor “news report for its customers, which means, the reports are almost cross-referenced to its previous report and the “common sense “already been accepted by its audience. It is hard to generate a new framework in this context.

 

 

模块名称:
全球媒体和新闻
摘要
一个国家吸引来自世界各地的大型盛事。为北京2008奥运会和2012伦敦奥运会,期望高涨,中国和英国将充分利用机会,促进积极的影像世界。本文探讨了在北京2008的仪式和伦敦2012仪式是由中国媒体和英国媒体报道的方式。本文也将论述在典礼关键看作为一种公共外交的工具。两个主要的问题将得到解决:首先,假设大型活动将有助于促进一个国家的正面形象被高估了。其次,新闻框架是特定文化背景下的分化框架使多样化的观众的看法。
关键词
国际传媒;民族品牌;中国;英国;奥运开幕式
简介:
大事件,它被定义为具有国际意义的和大众的吸引力的大型文化活动(罗氏,2000,第1页)。大型活动也被认为是一个地方品牌策略和平均赢得资本优势,吸引人和竞争(霍尔,2006,p. 59)。从20世纪80年代,大型体育赛事已成为首要的欲望和权力联盟企业的利益与政府对地方品牌结合的梦想,无论在象征性的“具体”的世界意义,钨(2010)在他的研究所。尽管所有的研究,主持大型体育活动对经济的影响已经表明没有神奇的增长引擎,他们应该是(例如,曼琛莱特,2008A;密尔顿,2001;目前,2002),仍然有许多国家举办奥运会的投标。他们认为这是一个宣传一个连贯的和积极的形象世界的好机会,即使只能获得有限的经济利润。
奥运会的开幕式,特别是开幕式,被认为是一个民族的期望,冷凝器。流行的晴雨表,反映了外界的国家形象接受。通过奥林匹克宪章指定的协议规定,奥运会开闭幕式艺术节目,应该是目前主办国家的文化。两个普遍的理想主义和国际主义等和平和东道国的独特的身份来表达(puijk,1994,p. 101)后对组织的仪式多年努力,东道主希望得到国际社会的承认和肯定,对其民族身份的庆祝。国家身份是不是一个静态的实体,但更经常的谈判和重新。导演和演员参与奥运会的开幕式不仅提供哪些国家是已知的世界也将它与模型。杰基霍根认为,奥运会是“国家”的话语建设的关键部位,其仪式表示构成国家身份的话语。霍尔称它为“国家”的叙述,这是“一套故事,图片,景观,场景,历史事件,国家的象征和仪式,代表或目前的经验分享,悲伤,胜利和失败,赋予意义的国家”(霍尔,1992,p.293)。
文献综述
大量研究表明,大众传媒的舆论导向和帧事件起着至关重要的作用(Gamson和莫迪利亚尼,1989)。同时,大型活动,为北京奥运会这样的,不能被裱在思想文化背景,与各主办国正试图通过宣传国家。奥运会已不再是一个体育赛事,但表示在国际舞台上一个国家的作用。国家媒体报道产生图像,通过使一个国家在提供大量的图像和符号的过程实实在在的。基本上,观众,或外部的个人照片东道国从什么媒体提供。
中国和英国的媒体系统之间的差异
中国和英国都在不同的政治,经济,文化和几乎所有其他方面,那些涉及到政治和媒体系统可能是一个最关键的一个。这些基本的差异塑造自己的媒体基础设施和系统支持。提出基于新闻四新闻理论模型的连续性对立两极是英国媒体系统和中国媒体系统(西伯特等人。,1956)。与前一个是自由主义的新闻模式,后者则是极权主义的共产主义模式。
作为一个专制的模型和有效的政府控制,中国媒体仍然生活在严格的审查和政府的严格控制,在政治和经济的急剧变化,尽管正在进行商业化
 

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