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澳洲墨尔本大学 The University of Melbourne硕士assignment跨文化交际85分essay代写范例

澳洲墨尔本大学 The University of Melbourne硕士assignment跨文化交际85分essay代写范例
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Communication on the internet: a Cross-cultural Perspective





ABSTRACT: In recent years, the fast developing internet has facilitated people’s cross-cultural communication. Based on the theories of cross-cultural communication, the theories of communication, the paper is to have a close examination on communication behaviors in the virtual world in order to pinpoint some key features of communication on the internet, to explore its Netiquette in cross-cultural communication, and to point out its problems and challenges. The study of communication on the internet is a burgeoning domain. Study on cross-cultural communication itself is an interdisciplinary endeavor. The joint of these promises a fertile field for further research.

Key words: communication on the internet; cross-cultural communication


Communication is one of the buzzwords nowadays, and usually it may refer to two concepts: the science and technology of information transmission which belongs to scientific domain; the other one is the human behavior of exchange and distribution of information, viewpoints and emotions, which is in the humanistic scope. In this paper, however, the latter is the subject for the discussion.

Internet presents people with information in extremely huge quantity unparalleled by any traditional media. Moreover, it is the fastest runner in the world. However, information consultation for individuals is but a part of the miracle. When users are used to getting news and search for information on Internet, they are exposed to much more cross-cultural interaction than ever before. This has emerged as a new dimension for cross-cultural communication.

Compared to other social studies, both cross-cultural communication and communication on the internet are new scopes for researchers.  As for the interdisciplinary field of cross-cultural communication in virtual world, it is still in its infancy with few theories.

1. Literature review

W.  B.  Hart (1998) frames a number of relevant questions regarding the possibilities for and challenges to intercultural communication on the internet-questions which a variety of researchers from a range of disciplines have attempted to address. A significant proportion of these papers report research studies that explore online intercultural communications between and within selected populations.

Research methodologies reported here include qualitative approaches such as case studies (e.g. Belz, 2003; Thorne, 2003), ethnographies (Warschauer, 1999), and surveys and interviews (Gunawardena et al., 2001, 2002; Onibere et al., 2001). Others have employed quantitative approaches to investigate specific cultural differences in attitudes to technology and use of technologies (Van Belle&Stander, 2002; Buragga, 2002), communication patterns and frequency (Choi&Danowski, 2002; Macfadyen et al., 2003), communication style (fakir et al., 2002; Hewling, 2003) or content (Sussman&Tyson, 2000).

Many of the studies investigate (and some of the theoretical papers discuss) intercultural communications using one particular communication technology, with examinations of email communications predominating (Chen, 1998; Grotenhuis, 2000; Inglis, 1998; O’Dowd, 2003).  Other studies investigate intercultural communication in asynchronous forums and discussion boards (Hewling, 2003; Savicki et al., 2002), in group conferencing platforms (Abdat&Pervan, 2000; Grotenhuis, 2000; Kim&Bonk, 2002) in newsgroups (Choi&Danowski, 2002; Hongladarom, 1998), and via synchronous communications technologies such as "chat" (Kotter, 2003). A smaller number discuss cultural implications for other human-Internet interfaces such as Web sites and graphics (Marcus&Gould, 2000; Stander, 1998).

Other studies (and especially those using qualitative approaches) focus less on the technology and more on cultural influences on interpersonal or intragroup processes, dynamics and communications in cyberspace, For example, Chase et al. (2002) describe nine thematic clusters of miscommunications that occurred between culturally diverse communicators in a web-based discussion forum (examples include "identity creation", "participant expectations" and "attitudes to time"). Davis (1997) offers an overview of research and theory on the degree to which computer-mediated communications can support community development and communications. Heaton (1998a) considers organizational and group cultures in her study of computer-mediated cooperative work. Kim&Bonk (2002) report on cultural differences in online collaborative behaviors, and Rahmati (2000) and Thanasankit& Corbitt (2000) examine cultural values referred to in decision-making processes by online groups.

Evidence is accumulating, then, that seems to suggest that cultural factors do impact communicative encounters in cyberspace. What is the most effective framework for exploring and explaining this, phenomenon, and what role is played by the design of human-computer interfaces are still not lucid yet.

2. Communication on the internet and in conventional mode

According to American communication scholar Larry Samovar, the process of intentional communication behavior is composed of eight ingredients:

1 .Source is the information sender who has a need to do communication;

2. Encoding is an internal activity in which a source creates a message through the selection of verbal and nonverbal symbols that are put together according to the rules of grammar and syntax applicable to the language being used;

3. Message is a set of verbal and/or nonverbal symbols that represent a source’s particular state of being at a particular moment in time and space;

4. Channel is the physical means by which the message is transmitted;

5. Receiver is  the   person  or persons  who  intercept the  message  and  as  a consequence become linked to the message source;

6. Decoding is converting external energies to meaningful experience, which is akin to the source's act of encoding, as it also is an internal activity of the receiver;

7. Receiver's response is what a receiver decides to do about the message;

8. Feedback is information available to a source that allows the source to make qualitative judgments about the effectiveness of the communication situation in order to adjust and adapt to the on-going situation.

 (Samovar, 1981)

All the eight ingredients function together to accomplish an effective and interactive communication behavior. Traditional mass-communication follows the mode regularly. The source could be television or radio stations and newspaper s publishers. Encoding for them is a complicated task and process, because they have to decide what news or program materials are to be edited, how to edit the selected ones according to their specialties, how to release news and programs to achieve the desired effect. Their messages are sent out when programs are put on the TV/radio for audience or newspapers are bought by readers. Wireless radio, cable TV set or newspapers are the channels. Receivers (audience and readers) will comprehend news and programs through their internal decoding, and give responses of agreement or disagreement to the transmitted messages. If any response reaches back to the source (TV/radio station and newspaper publisher), it becomes a feedback for the source to evaluate their messages. That's the way traditional media works.

When the Internet was accepted as a new medium for mass-communication, the eight-ingredient mode needs a close re-examination to tell whether they are operating the same way in virtual world.

Varied source:  For traditional media, the information manufacturers are professional journalists, directors and editors. On the Internet, however, each citizen can be message producer.

Unconventional encoding, decoding and messages: Information presented by traditional media is usually required to meet certain standards; therefore, the encoding of information is conventionalized to some extension. But information encoding in virtual world can be varied as much as possible, since personal expressions occupy large proportion of information. Obviously, unconventional encoding may lead to unconventional decoding. On the other hand, encoding and decoding allow personal freedom as much as possible. Furthermore, messages on the Internet may appear simultaneously in audio, visual or textual forms rather than a single one. This makes virtual messages unconventional, too.

Omnipotent channel:It is impossible for conventional media to take over all the transmitted messages on the Internet, for the operation of conventional media is subject to many technical and social conditions. In this sense, the Internet is an omnipotent channel compared to traditional media.

Receiver’s freedom of choice: A receiver in virtual world is never the same one as in traditional media. Receiver in traditional media usually accepts information in a passive hardly having chances to interact instantaneously with the source. But a receiver in networks can select information on his/her own wish or even become information source simultaneously by posting and copying.

Direct response and feedback:  It is not convenient for traditional media to get receivers' response, unless source spends particular effort collecting feedback. In virtual world, however, the relationship is parallel. Both source and receiver are free to post their ideas on websites or send e-mails to each other.

3. Key features of communication on the internet

3.1 Breaking down the constraints of time and space

Television, radio, and telephone networks have extended globally for much of the twentieth century, but they are limited by time, space and media characteristics. Commercial television and radio, one-way communication technologies, work well for mass communication, but poorly for interpersonal interaction. People can interact directly with telephone and short-wave radio, but only if participants access the communication channel at the same time (temporal simultaneity). Recorded voice communication (CD, tape) alleviates the problems of temporal simultaneity, however these media require that the participants possess the recorded media CD or tape must be transported physically through space.  Even unmediated interpersonal communication has its limitations, requiring both temporal and spatial simultaneity of the participants.

Internet systems create a “global village” because they liberate people from the constraints of time and space. Communication on the internet systems such as E-mail, IRC, and BBS bestow participants with different ways to span time and space. They can interact synchronously with IRC or asynchronously with BBS. And communication on the internet system goes beyond all other forms of communication by allowing participants to choose to whom they communicate more flexibly and comfortably. In addition, current communication on the internet system has transcended the limitation of being largely text-based, allowing for multi-media message content besides sound and pictures, and it also allows people to use a microphone, hooked up through the computer, to simulate phone conversations, greatly reducing the cost of oral conversation with friends and relatives across the globe.

3. 2 Lack of emotional cues

The most common way of communication on the internet uses a single channel-text, which narrows the expressivities in the communication and can lead to misinterpretation, while FTFC uses a variety of channels-words, intonation, gestures, posture, facial expressions, and body language-to convey meaning and emotion. It has been claimed that as human beings we carry out 75% of our communication through non-verbal actions. The absence of non-verbal actions in communication on the internet makes it difficult for the verbal interaction to be carried out in a smooth and comfortable manner. To compensate for this disadvantage, emoticons are created.

3. 3 Lack of social cues

Many of the cues to social status such as occupation, education level, gender, and race are less obvious in communication on the internet. In synchronic communication such as IRC and ICQ, the identities of participants are often opaque and real-life names are rarely used; the nature of cyberspace enables people to readily conceal the categories, with which they are automatically classified by society in the real world. As a result, the cyberspace holds the potential to overcome real world barriers created by the negative assumptions attached to stereotypes and to promote open communication and interaction among people of different ages, races, genders, sexual orientations, abilities, and classes who have the choice online of presenting themselves as the same or different. With guaranteed anonymity, communication on the internet participants using the Internet, e-mail or the Web, for example, can knowingly and intentionally create an artificial self (idealized or otherwise fantasized).

4. Netiquette

Drivers are expected to observe the rules of the road and the same is true as netizens travel through cyberspace. That is netiquette.

4. 1 Pithy introduction to netiquette

Netiquette, a blend word of network and etiquette, is a set of commonly agreed standards of conduct, or rules of communication, that operate within domain of cyberspace.

Etiquette on the Internet, like everywhere else, works best when seasoned with a little tolerance, compassion, and humor. Good netiquette requires observing the customs of the Net, much as knowing the customs and habits of where you travel makes you more welcome. The Internet is foremost about bringing people together. As much as it is praised for the vast amounts of information available to users, that information is secondary to the people with whom you can communicate.

There are three general categories of netiquette: netiquette for using the Internet, netiquette for communicating on the Internet, and netiquette for acknowledging people and resources on the Internet. The below are just some general rules to be followed when surfing the Net.

4. 2 Netiquette for using the Internet

First, protect your privacy and that of others. Remember that your e-mail is not secure; it can be read by system administrator or anyone who may have your password. To help protect your privacy, choose a password to your account that is a combination of numbers and characters that do not spell a word or common phrase.

Then, learn and follow the acceptable use policy. Netiquette on use is usually described in acceptable use policies set forth by the company or service that provides your Internet access. These may include limits on the amount of information you can store on your account, or limits on when you can use the Internet recreationally.

Last but not least, do not play when someone else needs to work. Although we can think of no academic computer network whose sole purpose is to be a virtual arcade, we have not yet heard of one where there is not some online game. Playing games is fine, as long as it is in moderation and does not interfere with the work of others.

4. 3 Netiquette for communicating on the Internet

The rules of netiquette are only mentioned in general, for they depend on the specific form of COMMUNICATION ON THE INTERNET and people who use that form.

Never leave the subject heading blank

Many people have software that automatically deletes messages without a subject heading. Others use their own personal filter the delete key. Blank subject headings reduce your chances of being read; they cripple communication. The only time you will want a blank subject heading is when sending messages to some discussion list software.

Strive for clarity

Clarity can suffer for any number of reasons. It is sometimes lost because the   writer and reader do not share the same context or frame of reference.

Be tolerant of errors, including your own

Taking care to avoid errors is best. However, you do not want to write e-mail as if you were taking a test. You will write both good messages and embarrassing ones, so treat errors kindly. Never publicly correct someone for an error in spelling or punctuation, especially since many e-mail programs lack spell-checking software. If an error distorts the meaning of a message beyond your understanding, e-mail the writer privately and ask for clarification.

4. 4 Netiquette for acknowledging people and resources on the Internet

    The final area of netiquette has to do with attribution. Correct attribution of sources has always been important in academic writing. This is perhaps even truer for the Internet. Many sites offer online resources that can be downloaded and used as handouts. For example, Purdue University has an Online Writing Lab that offers guides to grammar and punctuation. Students and teachers are welcome to download these, but are asked to keep the headings on so that others know the handouts originated at Purdue's OWL. Whenever you borrow from or refer to online sources, be sure to acknowledge them. If you are unsure of the attribution policy of a site, check with your instructor or e-mail the site administrator.

It should be noted that different countries have regulated different rules of netiquette, and even virtual communities, such as BBS, newsgroup postings, blogs have their own rules and regulations to be an eligible member. Therefore, apart from some general rules, people are supposed to bear the specific netiquette in mind before getting involved in the Internet.

5. Problems and Challenges

5.1 Cultural globalization and cultural identity

People’s perception can be refined to be multicultural in virtual world, since they are exposed to various cultures besides their mother culture. With more frequent exposure to other cultures, people may have more access to the understanding of them. This definitely will benefit cross-cultural communication and globalization.

Since the Internet helps to build up a multicultural global community, some researchers are worrying about the possibility that all cultures would be converged to form one single culture, and people around the world would follow the same pattern and customs without cultural individuality. Globalization thus causes a degree of cultural uniformity as one of its consequences.

Indeed, the tendency of cultural uniformity does exist. For instance, English is most widely used in virtual world. Given that an Asian and an Arabic in their first encounter have to give up both their mother tongues and communicate in a third language (most probably English), they may unconsciously contribute to the dominance of English. The extensive use of English would more or less reinforce the subtle influence of English culture. Other cultures, in this sense, may retreat to a minor status as a means of information transmission.

On the other hand, however, cultural identity is viewed in optimistic light. Although conventional mass-communication allows people to disseminate their own cultural  information  to  other  nations,  this  is  only  a  theoretical  possibility. Cross-cultural communication is frequently restricted or limited by a number of reasons (political attitudes, racial prejudice, spatial and temporal problems), which may cause extra cultural misunderstanding. Example can be that some Americans keep regarding China as an uncivilized Far East land cut off from the outside world. Nevertheless, the Internet, a system controlled by protocols and rules made on a voluntary basis, is not created to subject to some individual's prejudice or stereotype. Cultures can be presented on network as it is on people's own selectivity rather than with judgmental or imposed views. There are numerous Chinese websites available for other peoples to perceive current China which is an open society as dynamic and fast-changing as other countries. And foreigners also can easily keep in touch with their 



W. B.哈特(1998)帧的一些相关问题的可能性和挑战,互联网上的跨文化交际问题,各种来自不同学科的研究人员试图解决。一个显着的比例这些论文报告的研究,探讨跨文化网络之间的通信和在选定的人群。
报告的研究方法包括定性的方法如个案研究(例如贝尔茨,2003;Thorne,2003),民族志(Warschauer,1999),和调查和访谈(贡纳瓦达纳等人。,2001,2002;onibere等人。,2001)。有人调查的技术和使用技术的态度特定的文化差异的定量方法(Van Belle &机架,2002;buragga,2002),通信模式和频率(彩&丹诺斯基,2002;麦克菲迪恩等。,2003),通信方式(托钵僧等人。,2002;休林,2003)或内容(苏斯曼&泰森,2000)。
许多研究调查(和一些理论文章讨论)用一个特定的通信技术的跨文化交流,考试的电子邮件通信为主(Chen,1998;2000;grotenhuis,Inglis,1998;经,2003)。其他的研究调查中的跨文化交流异步论坛和讨论板(休林,2003;Savicki等人。,2002),在小组会议平台(阿巴德特和Pervan,2000;grotenhuis,2000;基姆&性交,2002)在新闻组(彩&丹诺斯基,2002;hongladarom,1998),并通过同步通信技术如“聊天”(科特,2003)。一小部分讨论其他人的互联网接口,如网站和图形的文化意义(Marcus &古尔德,2000;机架,1998)。



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