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加拿大sfu论文辅导93.5分成功代写案例:Scientific management has a great influence on modern management research and practice

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Introduction

Management, since preliminary forming theory, has experience hundred of year evolution. From the factory’s scientific management that Taylor’s proposed to today’s globalize, better educated and informationize enterprise management, during this period, it condenses sweat andpainstaking efforts of countless management practitioners and thinkers(Haag, Stephen, 2010).Just as famous manager Urwick said, “So far, most of modern management methods, at least many of them, could date from the concept which was presented half century ago of Taylor and his followers”. These management methods has improved and developed to a complete different way, but its core concept always finds in Taylor’s work and practice. This essay will first discuss the basic situation of scientific management, which including the significant meaning of Taylor’s scientific management and the background. Following this, it will represent the important influence that Taylor’s scientific management concept effects on modern management theory.

 

The basic situation of scientific management

Taylor’s scientific management theory is the milestone of modern management ideological history. It starts the precedent that use scientific method to study management, and marks that human has entered into scientific management period from experimental management.

Taylor’s scientific management is presented that aims at traditionalexperimental management. Its core problem is to evaluate labor productivity. In late 19 century and early 20 century, the inner conflict of industrial society makes the phenomenon of labor opposition worse and worse and leads to the low enterprise labor productivity. Scientific management was put forward under such background (K. Varlamov,1983).

 

Frederick. W. Taylor, father of scientific management, his scientific management concept, has a solid theory basic on the development of management and has a great influence on the research and practice ofmodern management.

 

Scientific knowledge instead of personal experience is the premise terms of scientific management. From the perspective of Taylor, the biggest problem of traditional management is that manager conducts permissive management which depends on their own experience. The behavior of this management is very rigid that managers rarely ask or cooperate with workers. Owing to personal fight, in most condition, workers have no possibility to work according to scientific rules and regulations.

 

Influence on management paradigm.

The definition and theory of paradigm is presented by American famousphilosopher of science, Thomas, Kunn and systematically explained inThe Structure of Scientific Revolution in 1962. It means the theoretical basis and practice standard which normal science operated on, as well as the common obeyed world view and behavioral pattern of the group of researchers who are engaged in some science subject. 

 

Since the management emerged, there are two theories which are leading the development of management, those are humanistic paradigm that pursuit more hommization management and scientific paradigm that make the management more efficient. The outstanding meaning of this sorting technique is to emphasis the objective that management theory, paradigm seeks for.

 

Scientific paradigm is presented by American classical manager Frederic.W. Taylor. People always call scientific paradigm Taylor paradigm, that is, divide the operation into most basic mechanical elements and analysis it, and then recombine them in a most effective way. The core of Taylor paradigm is to make work more productive and efficient.

 

On one side, the scientific paradigm which developed from Taylor’s scientific management make people realizes that management is a science that based on definite laws and regulations, article and principle. It adapts to all kinds of management activities of profit and non-profit organizations and it is also the activity that from the simplest personal behavior to big company’s operational action which fully arranged by organization. We can say that, the influence that scientific paradigm effects on management theory and practice is profound and lasting. Many of its concepts and practice has been adopted by many enterprises and organization (Liu Biansheng 2012). On the other side, Taylor’s scientific management demonstrates the identifiability and repeatability of work factors. Its direct consequence is that brings the improvement of organization and its management efficiency.

 

Introduce the practice into management research and enterprise management

Combination of his long time experience of engaged in mechanicalproduction, Taylor explored the scientific management through a series of experiment like famous carrying cast iron, scraping iron sand and coal and cutting metal experiment. These three experiments, from the basic to the most complicated, achieved success and offered real evidence and support for scientific management theory. These experiments built scientific management theory on the basis of scientific practice and made it become a real science.

It is the innovation of management research method that scientific management introduces the method of practice into management research and experiment. It lays a foundation for the generation and development of modern experimental management.

 

Scientific management has a significance meaning for the forming of modern human resources management theory system.

The contribution that scientific management effects on modern human resource management theory reflects in such several aspects

 

Work analysis and design.

Taylor stands for definite division of plan function and implementsfunction. Special plan department to engage in investigation and research provides scientific evidence for ration and operation method, protocolplan and deliver instructions and orders and some other functions.

 

The recruitment, select, training of employees

Taylor thought that the basic principle of wholesome personnelmanagement is to combine the worker’s ability and the work, the obligations of manage authorities is to find a fittest job for employees, and cultivate them into first-rate workers. 

 

Payment and encouragement

For encouraging the hard work of employees, Taylor proposes the implement of differential rate piece work.

 

Industrial relations

Scientific management theory is presented by making the transition that from labor opposition to benefit both labor and capital come true. Taylor proposes that, both worker and employer must realize the win-win effect that improving efficiency will bring, and cooperate with each others; they should work hard for common improving of labor productivity.

 

The extending of scientific management theory—the modern school of management science 

The origin of management science school can date from to Taylor’s scientific management, even the earlier Babbage and other people. After 20 century, there are more and more scholars who use math to study management. Taylor firstly puts forward the management concept ofoptimization, proposes that use exact science research and knowledge to instead old personal judgment and ideas for everything in factory.

 

Both scientific management theory and management science school give up managing through experience, instinct and subjective judgment, propose adopting the scientific method to management, however, school of management science is no longer limited in the research scope of work management and operation method but widespread to the management of whole organization. Therefore, in some sense, the school of management science is the inherence and development for Taylor’s scientific management theory (Zhang Xinguo, 2011).

 

The contrast between scientific management and process reengineering

The difference between scientific management and process reengineering is firstly in different research and investigation object. Scientific management emphasis on researching personal behavior in organization is the micro level of management, while process reengineering investigates the business process in the level of organization. Besides that, they have different basic evidence. Scientific management is based on 18 century’s labor division of English Economist Smith, through the detailing anddissolving of work process, tries to find a best way of working (Richard L. Daft & Dorothy Marcic, 2012). However, process reengineering is the integration and transformation to different business process from the systematic and whole perspective; thereby build a complete and efficient new process.

Scientific management and process reengineering concepts has achieved great success in the practice of enterprise’s management, but it also has its limitations. According to this, modern management research and management practice should combine the investigation to enterprise’s microcosmic aspect with macrocosmic aspect and make the concepts of process detailing and system combination better applied in the operation of management practice.

 

The revival of Taylorism—New modern Taylorism

In the early period of 1980s, management appeared an ideological trend to pursuit the scientism ideal, tried to clear up the “non-rational” of humanism and post modern management. In some sense, The challengetowards new labor force written by Peter. F. Drucker marked the revivaltendency of Taylorism. We regarded this management revival of 1990s as Taylor, the revival of Taylorism in current society and called new modern Taylorism.

 

In the level of macro management, Taylorism practices the “low-cost and high efficiency” management concept of enterprise organization. No matter in labor force management, performance management or product control aspects, emphasis the pursuit of efficiency and stands for that manager strengthens the efficiency of organizational operation through best practice experience (Michael A. Hitt, J. Stewart Black, Lyman W. Porter, 2010). However, the important view of new modern Taylorism is the objective of management should be the pursuit for science, efficient and humanity, both of them can not ignore either of them. We can come to the conclusion that New Taylorism is the correction of traditional Taylorism concept, at the same time of inheriting Taylorism efficiency concept, emphasis the factor of humanity, is the slipping the difference between the scientism and humanistic. 

 

Revealing meaning of scientific management

Taylor’s scientific management theory creates the innovation for scientific researching of management while its theory becomes the starting point of management. Under the promoting process of Taylor’s scientific management, in early 20 century, Western countries formed a scientificmanagement movement. Scientific management delivers many revealing meaning for managers.

 

Firstly, it firmly sets up the definition of efficiency. Taylor speaks highly of efficiency that in many his works he criticizes the low efficiency and promotes high efficiency. That because efficiency directly restricts furtherdevelopment of society and further promotion of people’s life.

 

Secondly, scientific management requires us to have the spirit of cooperation. Taylor holds the idea that the cooperation between people can give each other more interest. In modern society, the concept ofrealizing win-win condition in competition has been accepted. From this meaning, cooperation is more and more important. 

 

Last but not least, dealing the relationship between technology and management is essential. To establish the idea that technology has a same significance with management and have a correct idea about the relationship between technology and management, in the same time ofemphasizing the utilizing advancing technology, paying attention to the reform and construct of management system, thus, make the advanced technology and management complement each other to gradually promote labor productivity.

 

Conclusion

This essay mainly talk about a debate question that scientific management was the product of 19th Century industrial practices and has no relevance to the present day. The answer is negative. As we all know, Taylor’s scientific management theory has a long-term and meaningful influence on modern management. This essay mainly points the six important influences, that is, influence on management paradigm, introduce the practice into management research and enterprise management, scientific management has a significance meaning for the forming of modern human resources management theory system, the extending of scientific management theory—the modern school of management science, the contrast between scientific management and process reengineering and the revival of Taylorism—New modern Taylorism.

 

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