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新西兰奥克兰大学本科社会学research paper代写范例

新西兰奥克兰大学本科社会学research paper代写范例
  • 国家 : 新西兰
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How Drought Affects the Austral Realm

 

 

 

 

Your Name

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class Name

Professor’s Name

Date Assignment is Due

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Problem Statement     ………………………………………………………………. 2

Background Information about Australia and its realm……………………………..       2

Droughts Effect on the Population in Australia……………………………………....     4

Wildfires in Australia ………………………………………………………………..       4

Effects of Drought on Wildlife……………………………………………………….     5

Drought and the Lack of Water……………………………………………………….    5

Solutions that can be Utilized to Fix the Problem of the Drought…………………….    6

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..    7

Works Cited …………………………………………………………………………….. 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 How Drought Affects the Austral Realm

PROBLEM STATEMENT

As it pertains to Australia, drought can be defined as rainfall over a three-month duration being in the lowest decile of what a certain region has recorded in the past (Tapper and Hurry 16). This definition takes into account the fact that drought is a comparative term and that deficiencies in rainfall need to be contrasted to distinctive rainfall models such as seasonal variations. Distinctively, drought in Australia is defined in relative to lack of rainfall in pastoral leases and is established by a decile examination applied to a particular area.

Drought has had a heavy impact on the Austral Realm in the past few decades. For instance, during the 1902 Australia wide drought, the Federation Drought, over fifty million sheep were lost from the number that was recorded in 1982 and the number of cattle reduced by over forty percent (Keyantash and Dracup 1170). It took over twenty years for the number of cattle and sheep to return to the numbers that were recorded before the drought.

Several other droughts have hit Australia after this and consequently great losses have been recorded in agricultural activities, which in the end affects the economy and the lives of its citizens. Accordingly, there is need to devise measures that will lessen the effects of these droughts or better still, invent plans that will help individuals get through these periods of low rainfall without having to unnecessarily loose their means of livelihood.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT AUSTRALIA AND ITS REALM

       Preston and Jones describe Australia as the most dry and inhabited continent in the world, with one of the most erratic climates in the whole world. Traditionally, periods of low rainfall were referred to as droughts, and were considered to be unexpected whims of nature by the European settlers who are used to predictable, stable climates and plenty of rainfall. As if it is some kind of a norm, Australia has in the long term recorded approximately three years of adequate rainfall followed by three year of inadequate rainfall in an average span of ten years (Preston and Jones 45). This pattern has greatly been attributed to many causes but the strongest cause has been the climate phenomenon referred to as Southern Oscillation (Mercer, Christensen, and Buxton 273). This phenomenon is a “major air pressure shift between the Asian and East Pacific regions and its best known extreme is El Nino” (Mercer et al. 273).

Many droughts have been experienced in Australia. In the nineteenth century, some of the most severe droughts were the 1803 drought in NSW that resulted in brutal crop failures, the 1809 drought that persisted until 1811, the 1813 drought that lasted till 1815 prompting for search of new pastures, and the drought that lasted between 1826 and 1829 causing Lake George to dry and stopped the flow of the Darling River (Tapper and Hurry, 34). After the commencement of the meteorological recording, the most brutal droughts that have been witnessed occur after intervals of eleven to fourteen years. Most of the major ones recorded in the nineteenth century were in the year 1829, 135-1838, 1838-1839, 1846-which converted part of South Australia in to arid desert, 1849, 1850 and 1864 (Tapper and Hurry, 34). During the twentieth century, severe droughts were experienced in 1902, 1911-1915, 1918-1920, 1937-1947, and 1991 among other periods. Most notable in this period is the 1994 drought which resulted to more than ten towns losing their irrigation systems (Tapper and Hurry, 34). In the twenty-first century, Australia witnessed bad weathers as a result of the La Nina, and a severe drought in 2003. There has also been varying rainfall deficiencies since 2006 to present.

       In the past years, the Bureau of Meteorology’s greater understanding of El Nino

has advanced its aptitude to forecast seasonal rainfall and accordingly assists the authorities and individual citizens by giving them early warnings.

DROUGHTS EFFECT ON THE POPULATION IN AUSTRALIA

       During climate extremes in Australia, whether it is lack of rainfall or floods, agriculture is the one sector that suffers first and severely. Ultimately, everyone else suffers the impacts of the drought. The drought greatly affects the crop growing patterns, crop programs and reduces the number of breeding stock (Keyantash and Dracup 1177). This poses as a threat to permanent erosion of the farmers’ capital and reserve base of agricultural enterprises. Accordingly, decreasing agricultural productivity affects the national economy and the rural Australia.

       In addition, the threat of serious environmental damage, especially through the loss of vegetation and soil erosion, brings about long-term repercussions for the continuance of agricultural industries. The quality of water is also affected and outbreaks may occur; animals and plants are also threatened. It is has also been evidenced that dust storms and bushfires habitually increase during the dry seasons.

       Ultimately, all these have direct effect on the population. Food scarcity is one of the problems that are presented by drought. Other outcomes include lack of water, disease outbreaks due to limited resources, financial hardships, and a general inflated cost of living.

WILDFIRES IN AUSTRALIA

       Wildfires in Australia are caused by the severe heat waves that the nation experiences. As Tapper and Hurry note, at times the temperatures can rise to as high as 47 C (117F). The deadly combination of gale-force winds and the scorching temperatures combined with other factors of drought are the ones that predominantly trigger these fires. The fires have been known to consume homes, kill people and wildlife, and they can run for months. Other fires have been known to destroy thousands of acres of forested land. Firefighters and fire agencies are always at the frontline in fighting these fires by various means such as air sprays and from the ground. However, some of them have also become victims to these fires loosing their lives in the process.

EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON WILDLIFE

       The effects of drought in Australia are not only felt by the human population but also by the wildlife. According to Mercer et al., over ten percent of the total wildlife in the natural habitats succumbs to the impacts of severe droughts in Australia (280). This may be due to lack of vegetation cover, water, and due to their habitats being destroyed by the wildfires.

       In search of food, animals have also been know to migrate to other areas and in some cases there is conflict between human and animals as they compete for the scarce resources. 

DROUGHT AND THE LACK OF WATER

       As a result of the droughts, Australia experiences a lot of problems relating to water. In 2007 and present, Sydney’s largest water reservoir indicated low levels of water at 40% full and many rural towns predominantly in East Australia are often facing water shortage problems (Ruti, Di Rocco, and Gualdi 47). In addition, urban water management authorities in Australia are ever experiencing mounting pressures to deal with water shortages due to the droughts. However, the authorities are looking for ways to manage the problem and to make sure there is sustainable water.

 As a result of low levels of water, the availability of drinking water for the rural inhabitants and in the extreme, towns, results to poor water qualities. Accordingly, there are cases of  toxic algae epidemics which threatens the life of humans, animals, and plants (McKay 37). Various outbreaks are also associated with water scarcity due to drought. 

 

 

SOLUTIONS THAT CAN BE UTILIZED TO FIX THE PROBLEM OF THE DROUGHT

       The first solution that can be employed to avert the dire consequences of the drought is making sure that the boards that are concerned with managing drought such as the Bureau’s Drought Watch Service measures the rainfall patterns and the severity of the droughts and provides the government, the community, and businesses with the information. This will assist in assessing the current situation and assist in devising action plans that will make the impact of the drought minimal (McKay 50).

Another solution would be implementing effective water harvesting plans that would ensure there is enough water to last through the periods of drought. This may include constructing bigger dams and reservoirs to make sure that there is enough water for irrigation and industrial and domestic use during times of deficit.

The governmen

 

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