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英国牛津布鲁斯大学distinction毕业论文dissertation英文代写推荐范例

英国牛津布鲁斯大学distinction毕业论文dissertation英文代写推荐范例
  • 国家 : 英国
  • 级别 : 硕士
  • 专业 :
英国牛津布鲁斯大学distinction毕业论文dissertation英文代写推荐范例

详细描述

Romanian consumers’
perceptions and practices
regarding food waste
Master Thesis
 
Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction and motivation
Chapter 2. The food waste behavior of consumers
2.1. Food waste ............................................................................................................................. 5
2.1.1. Food waste definition .................................................................................................. 5
2.1.2. Food waste estimates and composition ....................................................................... 6
2.1.3. The paradox in consumers’ wasteful behavior .......................................................... 13
2.1.4. Reasons for food waste .............................................................................................. 14
2.1.5. Why do some people waste more than others? ......................................................... 16
2.1.5.1. Awareness and concern regarding food waste ............................................ 16
2.1.5.2. Factors that influence the food waste .......................................................... 17
2.1.5.3. Drivers of food waste .................................................................................. 22
2.2. Food waste conceptual model ............................................................................................... 27
2.2.1. The Theory of Planned Behavior in the food waste context ..................................... 28
2.2.2. The food waste conceptual model ............................................................................. 30
2.2.3. Hypotheses regarding the food waste behavior ......................................................... 33
Chapter 3. Focus group on Romanian consumers’ food waste
3.1. Methodology ........................................................................................................................... 34
3.2. Main findings ......................................................................................................................... 35
Chapter 4. Survey on Romanian consumers’ food waste
4.1. Methodology of the survey ..................................................................................................... 38
4.1.1. Description of the sample .......................................................................................... 38
4.1.2. Questionnaire design ................................................................................................. 40
4.1.3. Distribution and data collection ................................................................................. 41
4.1.4. Methods of analysis ................................................................................................... 42
4.1.4.1. Variables in the Food Waste Questionnaire ................................................ 42
4.1.4.2. Variables in the Food Waste Model ............................................................ 46
4.1.4.3. Multiple Regression ..................................................................................... 48
4.1.4.4. Mediation analysis ....................................................................................... 49
4.2. Results .................................................................................................................................... 51
4.2.1. The reported food waste behavior of the Romanian consumers ................................ 51
4.2.2. The behavioral intentions not to throw away food of the Romanian consumers ....... 52
4.2.3. The relationship between the behavioral intention, the PBC and the selfreported
food waste behavior ....................................................................................................... 53
4.2.4. Predictors of the Likelihood of not throwing away food............................................ 54
4.2.5. Predictors of the Intention not to throw away any food ............................................. 55
4.2.6. Predictors of undertaking efforts not to throw away food .......................................... 56
4.2.7. Prediction of food waste directly from the independent variables ............................. 57
4.2.8. Mediating role of the intentions ................................................................................. 58
4.2.9. Summary of results ..................................................................................................... 60
Chapter 5. Discussions and conclusions
References ................................................................................................................................. 71
Appendix 1 - Detailed focus group findings .............................................................................. 81
Appendix 2 - Food Waste Questionnaire ................................................................................... 89
Appendix 3 - Variables in the Food Waste Questionnaire .................................................... 103
Appendix 4 - Distribution of answers on the variables in the Food Waste survey .............. 108
Appendix 5 - The Food Waste Model ...................................................................................... 112
Appendix 6 - Baron and Kenny criteria and criticism ........................................................... 113
Appendix 7 - Enclosed CD containing the data set and SPSS outputs
List of Tables
Table 1. Summary of estimates of food waste .............................................................................. 11
Table 2. Reasons for food waste ................................................................................................... 15
Table 3. Overview of studies investigating the influence of socio-economic factors and
behavioral factors on food waste ................................................................................................... 19
Table 4. Drivers of food waste ...................................................................................................... 24
Table 5. Hypotheses regarding the food waste behavior of consumers ........................................ 33
Table 6. Characteristics of the sample compared to the general population ................................ 39
Table 7. Questions adapted from existing studies ........................................................................ 41
Table 8. Summary of the reliability analysis results ..................................................................... 45
Table 9. Composite variables in the Food Waste Model .............................................................. 46
Table 10. Variables used separately in analyses ........................................................................... 47
Table 11. Self-reported amounts of food discarded by the Romanian consumers ....................... 52
Table 12. Behavioral intentions not to waste food of the Romanian consumers .......................... 53
Table 13. Summary of Multiple Regression of Food Waste on Intention and PBC variables ..... 54
Table 14. Summary of Multiple Regression of Likelihood of not discarding food ...................... 55
Table 15. Summary of Multiple Regression of Intention of not throwing any food .................... 56
Table 16. Summary of Multiple Regression of Effort not to waste food ..................................... 57
Table 17. Summary of Multiple Regression of Food Waste ........................................................ 59
Table 18. Summary of the Mediation analysis ............................................................................. 59
List of Figures
Figure 1. Composition of food waste in UK compared to Turkey ............................................... 10
Figure 2. Food Waste Conceptual Model ..................................................................................... 32
Figure 3. Questionnaire structure ................................................................................................. 41
1
Chapter 1. Introduction and motivation
Food is a fundamental human need and it is vital for our existence and functioning
as human beings. Nevertheless our eating habits and the way we dispose of food is not only
affecting our own life but also the environment, the economy and the society as a whole.
(Morgan 2009). The beginning of the 21st century has brought increasing interest in the
world food situation due to changes in the driving forces of this system and global
circumstances (Morgan 2009, von Braun 2007). Globalization, urbanization and income
growth are some of the factors influencing the global food markets (von Braun 2007).
The proportion of income that households spend on food has decreased in recent
years due to increases in incomes and declining of food prices. This coupled, with more
consumer choices and apparent abundant availability of food has led to negligence towards
food waste and increased wasteful behavior, especially in the developed countries (Partiff
2010, Stuart 2009). In industrialized countries people are buying more food than they ever
did before and the amount of food available for consumption has increased significantly in
the past decade. These increases generally lead to overeating or wastage (Stuart 2009).
In the last few years though, food prices in global markets have raised significantly
leading to the food crisis in 2008. The scarcity of our resources has, since, become a major
concern for mankind, bringing the problem of global food shortages and food waste in the
center of the attention (Hall et al. 2009, Chalmin and Gaillochet 2009).
As the issue grows in intensity more and more governments, NGO’s and
international institutions show interest in this problem. Recognizing the need to reduce the
amount of food waste, in 2008 the United Nations has called on the governments to reduce
by at least 50% the amount of food wasted by the end of 2025 (Lundqvist 2008).
These recent developments in the area of food waste signal that people need to
understand that their consumption and wastage behavior affects the world and that the
appearance of infinite availability of food is just illusory (Stuart 2009). The current levels
of buying and discarding of food are certainly not sustainable (Morgan 2009).
Food waste occurs in every stage of the food marketing system, such as harvesting,
processing, storage, retail distribution, food service and households (Jones, 2006). In the
U.S., the losses in only three of the marketing stages (retail, food service and consumers)
2
account for 27% of all the edible food made available for consumption in these stages
(Kantor et al. 1997). Moreover, the consumer sector has been shown to be the single
biggest contributor to the total amount of food wasted (Kantor et al.1997, Griffin 2009).
The food waste generated at the household level can be classified in three
categories: avoidable, possibly avoidable and unavoidable food waste (WRAP 2009). The
first category consists of all food and drink that the households dispose of and which at
some point prior to disposal was edible (e.g. slices of bread, apples). In the second category
one can include “food and drink that some people eat and others do not (e.g. bread crusts)
or that can be eaten when a food is prepared in one way but not in another (e.g. potato
skins)” (WRAP 2009). Finally, any waste resulting in the process of preparing food and
drinks, which is not and has never been edible, is considered unavoidable food waste (e.g.
egg shells, banana skins) (WRAP 2009).
Food waste levels have been increasing in the recent years, reaching up to 40-50%
of all food ready to harvest in the U.S. (Coles 2005) and European countries following
closely. Such high rates of food waste, have negative consequences on the economy, on the
environment and on the society as a whole.
First, the economic impact of wasting food is very high for the consumers. In the
UK, households spend £10 billion on food that gets wasted (WRAP 2008), in the U.S. $
48.3 billion (Jones 2006) while in Australia 5.3 billion (Hamilton 2005).
Secondly, in terms of environmental impact the effects are also very serious. Food
waste is biodegradable, being the biggest sources of methane (Adhikari et al. 2006), a
greenhouse gas much more powerful than carbon dioxide that contributes to a large extent
to the problem of global warming (WRAP 2008). An even bigger environmental problem is
represented by the emissions of greenhouse gasses and use of natural resources during the
production, processing and transport of food. One tone of food waste is responsible for 4.5
tones of CO2 (WRAP 2008), while only in the US the food waste accounts for more than
one quarter of the total freshwater consumption and 300 million barrels of oil per year (Hall
et al. 2009). Finally, there is the problem of landfills availability. In the EU, the European
Landfill Directive (CEC 1999) addressed this problem, requesting the reduction of
biodegradable solid waste sent to landfills by its Member States with 35% of the quantity
disposed in 1995 by 2016 (Skourides et al. 2008).
3
There are also social impacts of food waste, though less straightforward ones. In a
global food industry the demand in one part of the world indirectly affects resources in
other parts of the globe. Therefore a wasteful behavior of the developed countries
invariably affects the food availability in the developing countries. Currently, there are
nearly a billion undernourished people in the world and they could all get enough food if
developed countries would just waste less food (Stuart 2009).
Motivation
Even if the problem of food waste is a very important one, there is still little
literature available in this field. This might be the case because the topic is relatively new.
The very few studies exploring consumers’ awareness, attitudes or perceptions regarding
food waste have been conducted by WRAP in the UK and The Australia Institute in
Australia (Partiff 2010). Moreover, almost all of the existing studies investigate the effect
of socio-demographic factors on food waste (e.g. Dowler 1977, Wenlock and Buss 1980,
Van Garde and Woodburn 1987, Skourides et al. 2008) but very few look at psychographic
factors, such as people’s attitudes towards food waste (Hamilton 2005, WRAP 2009). The
present study also explores the factors in this latter category because such variables have
been proved to be strong predictors of behavior (Ajzen 1991, Armitage and Connor 2001).
Moreover, in many cases, they are stronger predictors of behavior than the demographic
variables (e.g. recycling behavior: Oskamp et al., 1991, Hornik and Cherian 1995).
The issue of food waste is gaining momentum, this being one of the reasons for
which it attracted my attention. In Romania, there is still no research on how consumers
perceive this issue as well as no data on how much food the Romanians throw away. Even
if the developed countries are taking action, it seems that the food waste issue has not
reached yet the public attention in Romania.
While information regarding the amount of food waste in Romania is unavailable,
the biodegradable waste, in 2006, amounted to 2.5 million tones.1 Moreover, in 2007
Romania provided 3455 kcal per person per day, nearly 48% more food than needed,
considering that the caloric needs per person are 2300 to 2350 kcal per day (Osner, 1982),
similar to the food supplied by developed countries, such as UK with 3458 kcal/person/day
1 The Romanian National Agency for Protection of the Environment - http://www.anpm.ro
4
or the U.S. 3748 kcal/person/day (FAO. Food Balance Sheets, 2007). Therefore, the scale
of the food waste could be similar to the one registered in the more developed countries.
Purpose and objective
As mentioned before, there is a lack of studies looking at the food waste from the
consumer behavior perspective. This is why the purpose of my study is to investigate
consumers’ perceptions and practices regarding food waste, as well as, exploring the factors
that influence the food waste behavior. My objective is to measure these constructs, e.g.
attitudes, subjective norm or perceived behavioral control and explore how they influence
this specific consumer behavior. These findings could later on be used, along with other
resources, as a basis in developing a social campaign in this field. As well, for the purpose
of this study the focus will be on the avoidable food waste because it represents the largest
portion of all food waste (WRAP 2009) and it concerns all people.
Research questions
I will now go on and lay down the main research questions that will be address in
the present study.
1. Which are Romanian consumers’ perceptions regarding the food waste?
2. Which are Romanian consumers’ practices regarding food waste?
3. Which are the predictors of the food waste behavior of consumers?
In developing the survey that will help answering the above stated questions, the
theoretical background provided by Ajzens’ Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991) will
be used as a starting point.
Further on, this Thesis is structured as follows: Chapter 2 will contain a literature
review of studies in the food waste area, and the Food Waste model, Chapter 3 will include
the methodological aspects and findings of the first empirical study, the focus group on
Romanian consumers’ food waste behavior. I will then go on to present in Chapter 4 the
methodology and findings of the second empirical study, the survey on Romanian
consumers’ food waste behavior. I will close with Chapter 5 where the main conclusions of
the present study, the implications of its findings as well as its limitations will be presented.
5
Chapter 2. The food waste behavior of consumers
Interest towards the problem of food waste has been shown since the mid 1900’s
but it was only in the last few years that more attention was drawn towards it. The existing
literature in this area will be reviewed in the first part of this chapter, while in the second
part, the theoretical framework used in developing the study will be presented.
2.1. Food waste
In order to address the problem of food waste, researchers have been defining and
estimating the food waste as well as identifying its influencers. Recent investigations have
been conducted from a consumer behavior perspective with the aim of better understanding
the food waste at the consumer level, and of identifying people’s attitudes, values and
behaviors which lead to higher amounts of food to be discarded.
2.1.1. Food waste definition
There is still no definition widely accepted of what food waste means and until now
different studies have been using different definitions. One of the first definitions given to
food waste includes in this term “all food purchased or produced at home that is not
actually ingested by humans” (Gallo 1980). Other authors specifically include as well in the
food waste all edible food that is intentionally fed to animals (e.g. Stuart 2009). Recently,
researchers went as far as to include overconsumption, consuming higher energy values
than needed, in food waste (Smil 2003).
At the household level, food waste represents any food that is brought in the home
but is not consumed by humans (DEFRA 2010). Food that could be thrown away by
households gets into the home via retail or takeaway but it can also be food grown in the
household which is intended for human consumption. Usual disposal routes used by
consumers to discard of food are the sewer, food waste collections, household waste
recycling centres, home composting and feed for animals (WRAP 2009).
Not all the food waste is edible though. Most of the early studies included only the
edible food waste in their investigations, without accounting for the inedible category.
6
Thus, in early stages only two types of food waste were defined. Later on, WRAP, The
Waste & Resources Action Programme in UK, took the next step and categorized the food
waste as avoidable, possibly avoidable and unavoidable (WRAP 2009). The
correspondence between the early defined categories of food waste and the most recent
ones is the following: the avoidable and possibly avoidable categories correspond to the
edible food waste category while the unavoidable food waste corresponds to the inedible
food waste (WRAP 2009).
Therefore, over the time, numerous definitions have been given to the concept of
food waste. However, there is a lack of
 
 

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