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PowerPoint Presentation and Classroom Education Enhancement

Introduction

With the rising of the multimedia technology in the 1900s, computer assisted instruction plays a more powerful role in the field of education compared with other Medias. The development of the society along with the renewal of the technology and the change of the environment calls for using computer assisted instruction which has become an irresistible trend. And PowerPoint as part of computer assisted instruction is becoming more and more widely-used. It can have an influence on the quality of the classroom education. It is increasingly becoming an important tool in the education. However, PowerPoint needs to be used in a right way. And it has some weaknesses compared with traditional ways. Combination of multimedia technology and education is an important assisted teaching tool in modern education. It has shown strong superiority in education and its development has become one of the important symbols to measure teaching standard of a school and teachers (Ali & Richardson, 2012). PPT multimedia software as one of the media presentations has the characteristics of text, graphic, images, voice, animation and the video clip. It is easy to learn, modify and operate. And it can be shared and it has good extension. In addition, its support platforms are used widely. So many advantages make it popular among courseware software. Teachers can grasp producing technology in short time so they can apply it into computer secondary teaching to improve teaching quality.

As a secondary class teaching tool, the nature of PowerPoint Presentation is that it is presented with sound and image. In addition, its forms of showing are both dynamic state and static state. It can create a real situation for students in the teaching process so that it can greatly arouse the enthusiasm of learners and strengthen stimulus, feel, understanding and cognition of students to things and teaching process. In this way, it is an ideal teaching means. PPT teaching media is widely used in university class teaching and even the middle school in some areas. Compared with traditional teaching mode, it provides more intuitive and more visual teaching information with multiple senses and angles which greatly mobilize the attention and interest of students and improve teaching effect (Issa & Schuller, 2011). Teaching content can be highly organized and focused through PPT teaching media. It is good for students to integrally grasp the class teaching content. And it is in favor of implementing comprehensiveness of teaching and improving teaching quality. Application of PPT teaching media can improve class time utilization, teaching quality and teaching effect. It can also expand the teaching capacity. Two research questions under two research designs are proposed. This paper will use 2 different research designs to investigate 2 different issues in education areas. It is to compare and contrast the 2 designs to explore the advantages and disadvantages of each design. PowerPoint Presentation and the quality of Classroom Education is one of the topics which I am interested in. The study will choose PowerPoint Presentation as Classroom Education tool. With the methods of RCT and case study, PowerPoint presentation and classroom education enhancement will be discussed.

Design 1: RCT

Research Question1: Do PowerPoint presentations help students understand learning content better in the classroom?

1.The reasons for conducting RCT

The reasons for conducting RCT are of great significance as it is needed to present why RCT is chosen to study the problem. RCT is one of the means of testing the effects of therapy or the drugs in the medical and health services and it is particularly often applied into the study of medicine, pharmacy and nursing. What’s more, it is also used in some other areas such as justice, education and social sciences. RCT is characterized by: Randomized grouping; setting the control; imposing intervention (Newby, 2010). The research subjects are randomly grouped and different interventions are imposed on different groups to control different effects. With enough research subjects, this method ensures that the known and unknown confounding factors have the same effect on every group. And in this study, RCT method is used. Baxter & Jack (2008) argue that the differences between an RCT from a simple educational experiment are that the research subjects are enough and they are randomly assigned. In addition, they are given different interventions.

Main purpose of RCT is to verify he effectiveness of an item of randomized controlled trial such as medicines, treatment and public health policy. RCT is widely used in medical science (Hammersley, 2004). RCT is also an excellent research method for solving effectiveness questions in education. This question is to testify whether PowerPoint presentations are effective.

2.      Method

2.1 Study design

First, the aim of the study design is needed to set. It is to demonstrate a teacher how to use PowerPoint in the process of a lecture in this design. Under the circumstances, whether PowerPoint is effective in the classroom education or not can be verified.

2.2 Participants:

It is to determine the subjects of the trail. Subjects are important in a RCT. The study will be undertaken in a junior middle school in CHENGDU, CHINA. This step is set the subjects. As in some junior middle school in CHENGDU, CHINA do not have classes with PowerPoint presentations. And effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations can be tested through trails on them. Junior middle school students are chosen as they live in the school and the classes they have are often without PowerPoint presentations.

2.3 Random allocation

It is to illustrate how RCT is implemented. Random allocation is one of the characteristics of RCT. Two classes in the same grades will be randomly chosen among junior middle school.  First, it is to set the grades. The grades will be randomly chosen according to the number in pages. Following this, two classes will be randomly chosen by drawing straws according to the name of the classes. Then, the two classes will be randomly assigned as the experimental group and the control group. They will be given the algebra in different ways. The experimental group (40 students) will be lectured by a teacher using a PowerPoint presentation, and the control group (41 students) will be lectured in the traditional teaching by the same teacher using a blackboard. They do not have the chance to learn through PowerPoint. Then blackboard students are not benefitting from power point slides of their peers. Two classes in the junior middle school will be chosen.

2.4 Instruments and Testing

It is to present the tool of testing to reflect the effect of using PowerPoint in the process of a lecture. It can test whether PowerPoint presentations can improve the quality of education in the classroom. Course achievement tests will be given the experimental group and the control group. Tests consist of 3 parts and the standard is 100 points for pretest and posttest. First, it is basic test. The 1st pretest is for control and experiment group before intervention. Second, it is mid-term test which is to detect the difference in gains between control and experiment group. Third, it is final test to detect whether control group made any gains similar to experiment group by using PPT after mid-term and whether experiment group can continue make progress or wash out (Yin, 2009).

2.5 Procedure of Intervention Implementation

It is to present how to implement the intervention. The internal controls might include teaching hours, instruments, course content, and instructor. All of them should be the same for the two groups. The external controls might include random assignment and analysis of covariance such as pre-test score, improper experiment time.

The control group should receive a lecture accompanied by a blackboard. The intervention group should use PowerPoint software. And after the mid-term test, the control group will also receive PowerPoint education. The experiment will run for a term, from September 2010 to December 2010, and each class will meet three times per week, for 45 minutes each session. There will be two exams during a term to test students learning achievements.

2.6 Data analysis and results

This step is to analyze the data and the results. And data analysis can tell the effectiveness of PowerPoint. Through analyzing the grades of the three tests, the conclusion can be got. In the first place, the total grades and mean grades of 3 tests for control and experiment can be got respectively. The data is as follows:

          Grades

Group

Tests

The total grades

The mean grades

The control group

 

 

 

 

Basic test

2890.09

70.49

 

Mid-term test

2933.96

71.56

 

Final test

3038.92

75.49

The experiment group

 

 

 

 

Basic test

2820.8

70.52

 

Mid-term test

3020.4

75.51

 

Final test

2978

75.95

Then it is to compare and contrast the tests of control and experiment group respectively.  Firstly, as we can see from the data of the 1st pretest, the mean grades of two groups are close. This has shown that the two groups are at the same starting point. Secondly, after the experiment group use PowerPoint software for two months, the grades of them are greatly improved while the control group just get a little improvement.  The difference in gains between control and experiment group can be seen. Thirdly, the control group also receives PowerPoint education after the mid-term test, and the mean grades of the final test for two groups are close again. In this way, we can see control group has made gains similar to experiment group by using PPT after mid-term. And experiment group can continue make progress. In addition, as the experiment group is given classes with PowerPoint education for a longer time, its mean grade of final test is higher than the control group. In conclusion, PowerPoint presentations help students to understand learning content better in the classroom.

2.7 Ethical issues

Ethical issues are needed to be paid attention to. It is needed to tell participants the real aim and reasons for this design. Only participants recognize the trail, it can be implemented. It is needed to inform the teachers of research progress. In addition, it is needed to establish good relationship with participating agency (BERA, 2011).

3. Advantages and Disadvantages

3.1 Advantages:

Causal inference can be implemented. From the data got from the RCT, some results can be concluded. This is more cogent than theoretical analysis.  RCT is a method for detecting the effectiveness of an intervention. It is a good way to solve the question that whether PowerPoint presentations can help students understand learning content better in the classroom or not. It can control the selection bias and temporal change. In addition, it can directly and explicitly conclude the results. The large data can confirm the persuasiveness. RCT is of great comparability and the statistical methods are simple (Hart & Smith, 2009). Internal validity and external invalidity can be guaranteed. What’s more, regression to the mean can make the statistics more effective. It can also generalize the results to some extent. Low cost is another advantage of RCT. Statistical analysis can help to address these potential problems.

3.2 Disadvantages

It is needed to deliberately arrange such course. Some other factors that are out of control can affect the validity. Not all the internal controls can be guaranteed. In addition, it cannot exclude the possibility of chance or some other unknown factor explaining the results (Leech & Onwuegbuzie, 2009). The samples are not sufficient. In addition, the pre-test may has some influence on post-test. It needs several months to conduct the trail and it is not a trail that can decide once and for all.

以下附带百度翻译(机器翻译)帮助理解

在世纪初的多媒体技术的兴起,计算机辅助教学发挥更强大的作用,在教育领域与其他媒体的比较。随着社会的发展,技术的不断更新,环境的变化,利用计算机辅助教学,已成为一种不可抗拒的趋势。PowerPoint作为计算机辅助教学的一部分,正得到越来越广泛的应用。它可以影响课堂教学质量。它日益成为教育的一个重要工具。然而,PowerPoint需要使用正确的方法。与传统的方法相比,它有一些弱点。多媒体技术与教育相结合是现代教育中的一种重要辅助教学工具。它在教育方面表现出了很强的优势,其发展已成为衡量一个学校和教师教学标准的重要标志之一(阿里、理查德森、2012)。PPT多媒体软件为一体的多媒体演示具有文本,图像,图形的特点,声音,动画和视频剪辑。学习、修改和操作是很容易的。它可以共享,它有很好的扩展。此外,它的支持平台被广泛使用。在课件制作软件中,有许多优点使它很受欢迎。教师可以在短时间内掌握生产技术,将其应用于计算机辅助教学,提高教学质量。
作为辅助课堂教学的工具,PowerPoint演示文稿的特点在于它的出现声音和图像。此外,它的表现形式是动态的状态和静态的状态。它能为学生在教学过程中创造一个真实的情境,使学生能够极大地调动学生的学习热情,增强学生对事物的理解和认识,加强对事物的理解和认识。就这样,它是一种理想的教学手段。PPT教学媒体被广泛应用于大学课堂教学,甚至在一些地区中学。与传统教学模式相比,它提供了更直观、更直观的多感官和角度极大地调动学生的注意力和兴趣的教学信息,提高教学效果(伊萨&舒勒,2011)。教学内容可以高度的组织和集中通过PPT教学媒体。学生对课堂教学内容的整体把握好。有利于实现教学的全面性和提高教学质量。PPT教学媒体的应用可以提高课堂时间的利用,教学质量和教学效果。它还可以扩大教学容量。提出了2个研究设计的问题。本文将采用2种不同的研究设计,探讨教育领域的2个不同的问题。它是比较和对比的2个设计,探索每一个设计的优点和缺点。PowerPoint演示文稿和课堂教学质量的一个话题,我感兴趣的。本研究将选择PowerPoint演示文稿作为课堂教学的工具。随着研究和案例研究的方法,PowerPoint演示文稿和课堂教育增强将讨论。
设计1:随机对照试验
研究问题:做PowerPoint演示,帮助学生理解学习内容在课堂上更好的吗?
1进行RCT的原因。
进行RCT的原因是伟大的意义需要现在为什么RCT选择问题研究。RCT是一个在医疗卫生服务的疗法或药物的效果的测试手段,特别是经常应用于医学研究,药学和护理。另外,它也被用于一些其他领域,如司法、教育和社会科学。RCT的特点是:随机分组;设置控制;实施干预(Newby,2010)。研究对象是随机分组,不同的干预措施,对不同的群体施加不同的影响。有足够的研究对象,这种方法确保了已知的和未知的混杂因素有相同的影响,对各组。在这项研究中,使用RCT的方法。巴克斯特和杰克(2008)认为区别RCT从一个简单的教育实验,研究对象是不够的,他们被随机分配。此外,他们给出了不同的干预措施。
RCT的主要目的是验证有效性的一项随机对照试验,如药品,治疗和公共卫生政策。RCT是广泛应用于医学(Hammersley,2004)。RCT是解决教育的有效性问题一个很好的研究方法。这个问题是为了验证PowerPoint演示文稿是有效的。
 

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