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加拿大代写-加拿大sfu代写EUROPEAN UNEMPLOYMENT

加拿大代写-加拿大sfu代写EUROPEAN UNEMPLOYMENT
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详细描述

EUROPEAN UNEMPLOYMENT

Losing a job can be the most distressing economic event in a person’s life. A job loss means a lower living standard in the present, anxiety about the future. With the variety of negative impact caused by the oil crisis and economic crisis, unemployment rate rising all around the world. The high rate of unemployment means social resources idle and wasting. The decline of national income has a bad effects on both consumer and investor confidence that is not conducive to macroeconomic development and social stability.

The problem of unemployment is usefully divided into two categories—the long-run problem and the short-run problem. The economy’s natural rate of unemployment refers to the amount of unemployment that the economy normally experiences.Cyclical unemployment refers to the year-to-year fluctuations in unemployment around its natural rate. It is closely associated with the short-run ups and downs of economic activity. Sometimes, we also call unemployment structural unemployment or frictional unemployment. The unemployment that results from the process of matching worker and jobs is sometimes called frictional unemployment because it takes time for workers to search for the job that best suit their tastes and skills, and it is often thought to explain relatively short spells of unemployment. Unemployment of this sort is sometimes called structural unemployment because the number of jobs available in some labor markets is insufficient to provide a job for everyone who wants one. As we will see, this kind of unemployment results when wages are, for some reason, set above the level that brings supply and demand into equilibrium. We will examine three possible reasons for an above-equilibrium wage: minimum- wages laws, unions, and efficiency wages.

We can discuss the unemployment from a wage above the equilibrium level. In this labor market, the wage at which supply and demand is W1. At this equilibrium wage, the quantity of labor supplied and the quantity of labor demand both L1.By contrast , if the wage is forced to remain above the equilibrium lever, perhaps because of a minimum-wage law, the quantity of labor supplied rises to L2, and the quantity of labor demand falls to L3. The resulting surplus of labor, L2-L3 represents unemployment.1

Figure 1:

 

Source: figures from Google

 

From the end of World War II to the end of the 1960s, European unemployment was very low. In the 1970s, it started increasing. It continued to increase in the 1980s, to reach a high plateau in the 1990s. It is still high today, although the average European unemployment rate hides a high degree of heterogeneity across countries. In my opinions, structural unemployment has led to high unemployment in Europe. Let’s share some data.

Figure 2:

 

 

Note. This figure also shows youth unemployment and the latest figures suggest the situation has got worse. The youth unemployment rate for 2012 was 23.7% in the Spain, up from 18.7% in 1992.

Figure 3:

Euro area and EU27 unemployment rates

Seasonally adjusted series

 

Note. The latest figures from Eurostat

The latest increase shows that 11% people in the whole European Union were unemployed in 2012. - That’s an increase of 2.5% on the 2005. Compared with EU27, unemployment has risen by 0.9%.

Prior to the first oil price shock the unemployment rate within the European Community stood at less than three percent of the work force. As unemployment increased in the 1970s, the initial focus was on the role of shocks, from oil price increases to the slowdown in productivity growth.

A high unemployment rate may be the result of high flows in and out of unemployment, or/and a high average duration of unemployment. The following figure, which gives the evolution of the unemployment rate and unemployment duration in France (for which data on the composition of unemployment by duration exists from 1968 onwards) shows that the increase in the unemployment rate has come with a large increase in duration. The figure suggests that duration, which was already higher than that of the United States in the late 1960s, has more than doubled since then, and now stands at well over a year.4

Figure 4:

 

Note. Unemployment rate and duration in France Source: Enquètes Emploi, INSEE, series longues; with adjustment by author for 1968 to 1974

We think that it was the interaction between the impact of the macroeconomicand system of the labor market that caused the increase of European equilibriumunemployment rate and natural unemployment rate: The increase of equilibriumunemployment rate keeps the actual unemployment rate at a high level, and theincrease of the actual unemployment impacts the system of the labor market. This interacting mechanism is called “Ratcheting”. The impact caused the short-run unemployment. Then, the labor market rigidity pushes forward when the Ratchtingmoves up, and pushes backwards when the Ratchting moves down. In another word, the labor market rigidity amplifies the Ratchting. This very interacting mechanism is the major cause of the increase of European unemployment rate and the emergence of divergency in Europe.

欧洲失业
失去一份工作可以成为一个人一生中最痛苦的经济事件。失业意味着一个生活水平低的标准,对未来的焦虑。随着石油危机和经济危机造成的各种负面影响,全球的失业率都在上升。失业率高意味着社会资源的闲置和浪费。国民收入的下降对消费者和投资者的信心,不利于宏观经济的发展和社会稳定的影响。
失业问题是有效地分为两大类,长期问题和短期问题。经济的自然失业率指的是经济通常经历的失业率。周期性失业指的是年内失业率的波动,其自然率。它与经济活动的短期起伏密切相关。有时,我们也叫失业结构性失业或摩擦性失业。失业导致工人和工作的过程中,有时被称为摩擦失业,因为它需要时间来寻找最佳的工作,他们的品味和技能,它往往被认为是解释相对短的法术失业。这种类型的失业有时被称为结构性失业,因为在一些劳动力市场的就业人数不足以提供一份想要一份工作的每个人的工作。正如我们所看到的那样,这种失业的结果,由于某种原因,在一定程度上,将供给和需求转化为均衡。我们将探讨一个高于均衡工资的三个可能的原因:最低工资法、工会和效率工资。
我们可以从一个工资高于均衡水平的工资来讨论失业问题。在劳动力市场,在供应和需求的工资W1。在这个均衡工资,劳动供给与劳动需求L1的数量。相反,如果工资是被迫留在上面的平衡杆,也许是因为最低工资法,劳动的供给量增加到L2,L3和劳动力需求下降的数量。由此产生的剩余劳动力,L2-L3代表失业。1
图1:
来源:谷歌的数字
从二战结束到60年代末,欧洲的失业率很低。在70年代,它开始增加。在20世纪90年代,它继续增加,在20世纪90年代达到了一个高度的高原,尽管欧洲的平均失业率在不同国家都具有高度的异质性,但仍然很高。在我的观点中,结构性失业导致了欧洲的高失业率。让我们分享一些数据。
图2:
注意。这一数字还显示青年失业率和最新数据显示情况有更糟。西班牙的青年失业率为23.7%,在西班牙的2012,从1992上升到18.7%。
图3:
欧元区和美国的失业率
经季节性调整系列
注意。欧盟统计局的最新数据
最新的增长表明,在整个欧洲联盟的11%人失业2012。•2.5%的增长在2005。与美国相比,失业率上升了0.9%。
在第一次石油价格冲击下,欧洲共同体的失业率在的劳动力中处于不到百分之三。随着20世纪70年代失业率的上升,最初的焦点是冲击的作用,从油价上涨到生产率增长的放缓。
高失业率可能是高失业率和失业率高的结果,或者是高失业率的平均时间。下图给出了法国的失业率和失业率的演变(从1968开始,失业的持续时间从开始)显示失业率的上升已经伴随着持续时间的增加而增加。这一数据表明,在20世纪60年代末,美国的持续时间已经超过了美国,现在已经超过了一倍,现在已经超过了一年。4
图4:
注意。法国的失业率和持续时间:询盘来源èTES使用,法国国家统计局,系列椅;调整的作者1968至1974
我们认为,造成欧洲均衡失业率和自然失业率上升的劳动力市场宏观经济和制度之间的相互影响:均衡失业率的增加使实际失业率保持在较高水平,而实际失业率的增加会影响劳动力市场的制度。这种相互作用的机制被称为“棘轮效应”。造成短期失业的影响。然后,劳动力市场刚性推动当热棘轮效应上升,并推动向后向下移动时,热棘轮效应。在另一个世界

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