英国论文代写网

当前位置: 首页 > 精品范例 > 美国论文代写essayassignment
美国论文代写essayassignment

美国代写-美国代写assignment98分范例:critical thinking

美国代写-美国代写assignment98分范例:critical thinking
  • 国家 : 美国论文代写
  • 级别 : 品牌一
  • 专业 :
QQ768093293八年数万高分反馈成绩截图+写手资料证书水印照片曝光!史上最强联盟tutor+外籍+PHD上千精英联盟!邦典留学生论文代写网专业致力留学生英语论文作业的代写服务,无论英国论文代写还是澳洲论文代写,加拿大论文代写还是新西兰香港墨尔本悉尼温哥华等国家地区的论文都可以快速保质完成。专业留学英语论文代写.铁证如山数万截图100%好评!不满意退款!

详细描述

Content
 
Introduction…………………………………………………………..1
 
 
 
Main Argument……………………………………………………….2
 
 
 
Summary………………………………………………………………6
 
 
 
Introduction
 
The advent of management which is generally regarded as a social practice happened in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (Pollard, 1968). The emergency of management came along with doubts and critics from social and political perspectives in regard of organizations and companies. From Adam Smith (1776) to the Wren (1994), they both presented critical opinions on management when it firstly appeared challenging it with its obvious drawbacks. Since management developed within changes, it is more frequently used and valued in political domain as well as private and public sectors. The increasingly unrestrained power in management which has reached a more essential and noticeable stage triggered those who is concerned with the analysis of work and organizational constitution to pay much more attention in management itself. This is the major background of critical management strategy. Generally, CMS emerged in UK in 1990s but its advent was influenced jointly by some political and commercial changes in 1980s including New Right Movement and the inter crisis of management. CMS requires an ability to be self-evident according to Fournier and Grey (2000). Critical management studies imply that presenting rebelling opinions with the conduction of management thinking that this situation should be adjusted and developed. In this essay, critical thinking will be applied to probe the relationship into CMS and the mainstream theories themselves.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Main Analyzing
 
The engagement in critical management studies in making decisions requires a critical attitude towards management as a practice and as a body of knowledge which demands revolution (Fournier & Grey, 2000). According to this statement, critical management studies are based on a reflective view towards mainstream theories which aimed at challenging the ‘a best choice’ opinion with a natural processed perspective. However, critical management academics actually developed from the intellectual custom and social science of specific societies which is diversified from each other. The plurality of culture and the changing global trend contribute to the fact that there is not a universal principle for the demarcation of critical and non-critical view. Thus, the relationship between CMS and the mainstream theories is complicated which cannot be generally regarded and universally asserted.
 
 
 
CMS argues that mainstream theories offer limited view of the world of work
 
From the opinion of Fournier and Grey, theories of the mainstream are failed to understand the world of work comprehensively. They believe that in the real case of management within an organization or politics, attitudes should be anti-performative, denaturalization and reflexivity. According to the statement of Ann L. Cunliffe (2003), a debate of truth arose in many social fields including philosophy, linguistics, natural sciences and others. This debate emerged as the notion of reflexivity to challenge the absolute view of the world shared by mainstream social science (Burrell & Morgan, 1979). Generally, critical management theories believe in the intrinsic instability of knowledge and human recognition which requires continuous research on facts to renew the truth. From my perspective, it is logical for Fournier and Grey to conclude that mainstream theories offer limited view of the world of work. Since history and society are rooted in revolutionary changes, knowledge can only be applicable for the time when it obtained rather than universally useful through decades. Even supposed that truth and reality can possibly be universal and unchagable but the recognition of human beings is continuously developing and opinions are changing with the reference to social practice. Thus, result of research, principle of natural science and conclusion of certain phenomenon which is named “reality” or “truth” is restrained to the contemporary social condition and deserved further studies with time going by. Therefore, critical management studies regard one shortage of mainstream theories as lacking of a developing and comprehensive opinion of truth, principle and reality. Generally, the limitation of recognition towards worlds lies in the restriction of real practices in certain social condition and history background. Also the continuous experience of individuals with others and real world will construct new understanding of reality and truth. And mainstream theories are failed to probe the inherent instability of knowledge and truth (Ann, 2003). Thus, the view of world from the perspective of mainstream theories is neglecting the development of history and human practice separating intrinsic recognition from the influence of external condition. Therefore, the argument made by CMS is reasonable.
 
 
 
CMS argues that mainstream theories offer unrealistic view of the world of work
 
According to Fournier and Grey (2000), view which mainstream theories adopted into practice is unrealistic. It challenges the mainstream view with a more open and reflective opinion on account of the exclusion of problem of power, domination and exploitation (Knights & Willnott, 2007). According to Knights and Willmott, freedom and inequality in management is among the key issues of critical management studies. Rather than constructing a formal rule or distinguished characters in a group, CMS encourages a set of self-directed process which allows a participation of each individual. Therefore, it is not a sound argument for CMS to assert the mainstream theories as an unrealistic view in real practice for it contradicts the concepts of freedom and equality of CMS itself. The mainstream theories, though with limitations and incapability in practice, are still domain as the mainstream in management field in contemporary time, which indicates the fact that they are applicable to the existing reality. Besides, CMS emerged under a trend struggling for New Right and is also greatly influenced by post-structuralism, deconstructionism, literary criticism and feminism though the impacts may be limited (Rose, 1989 f).  Therefore, CMS can be concluded to a theory with plurality. According to Fournier and Grey, the theoretical relativism of CMS and the fact that there is no unitary ‘critical’ stage adds complexity of telling critical from non-critical. Thus, since the existence of CMS is based on and influenced by mainstream theories, it would be out of logic to regard mainstream theories as unrealistic for CMS is emerged from the basis of rationalism theories with reflective and critical perspective to make it more accomplished. Additionally, there is an obvious paradox if CMS judge mainstream theories as unrealistic. Reflexivity opinion of CMS believes there exists no universal truth and reality for human recognition will be constantly developed in response to their real experience. Results and conclusion of research will be renewed. If even reality and truth is not absolute, mainstream theories can be regarded neither realistic nor unrealistic in account of reflexivity.  
 
 
 
Summary
 
According to the arguments in the paragraphs above, it would reach a conclusion that the argument of Fournier and Grey about the attitudes of CMS towards mainstream theories are of reflexivity opinion but also with paradox inside itself. Fournier and Grey believe that mainstream theories emphasize on the significance of concentrated power, formal rules and principles which the function of organizations and companies are restricted to. This restriction is the limitation of mainstream theories which neglect the essence of equal participation of each individual and deny the capability of free voice. Take the emergency of CMS firstly in UK as an example. Compared to US, one reason this is that UK is relatively more open to anti-positive debate. Another reason is that the UK was situated in a beer circumstance with a critical intellectual tradition. Thus, UK provided a more free stage for voice and opinion than that in UK and this fairly involved environment promote the variety of opinion towards management and break the old stereotypes. In this way, view could be more critical and comprehensive if there is no prohibition in conducting opinion. However, in US, mainstream theories towards management dominate the field and the capacity for developing critical sociology is limited. According to this, CMS was born in a place which is relatively free of debate and has witnessed the abusing of power and the crisis of management. In an attempt to change the current situation, CMS promoted a more open reflexivity style of management in organization and country culture. Compared to the either the background and research approach of CMS, mainstream theories is limited within authorized attitude towards management and is overemphasized on the manpower of leading and regulating. But one thing which deserved to be noticed is that the prevalence of positive method or mainstream theories dominates US, though compared to CMS the positive method seems limited in concepts, it still a set of practice with real meaning to the world. Since Fournier and Grey have presented in their opinion that CMS is base on various thread of social science and is critical and doubtful of the concept of truth and reality, it could be easier for CMS to continuously changing their attitudes toward truth and reality rather than asserting the actual conclusion of what is truth and reality.
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reference
 
Pollard, S.  The genesis of modern management. London: Penguin, 1968
 
 
 
Knights, D. & Vurdubakis, T. Foucault, power, resistance and all that. In J.Jermier, D.Knights and W. Nord(Eds), Resistance and power in organizations. London: Routledge, 1994, pp. 167-98
 
 
 
Kinights, D. & Willmott, H. (Eds). Organizational culture as management strategy. International Studies of Management and organization, 1987, 17, 40-63.
 
 
 
Wren, D. The evolution of management thought. New York: John Wiley, 1994.
 
 
 
Smith, A. The wealth of nations. London: Methuen, 1776/1904.
 
 
 
Cunliffe, A. Reflexive Inquiry in Organizational Research: Questions and Possibilities. London, SAGE, 2003.
 
 
 
内容
介绍.................................................................... 1
主要论点................................................................ 2
摘要........................................................................ 6
景区简介
管理通常被视为一种社会实践发生在晚第十八和第十九世纪初问世(Pollard,1968)。管理的紧急情况,来自社会和政治的角度,在组织和公司的怀疑和批评。亚当-史密斯(1776)到雷恩(1994),他们都提出了批评意见对管理时首先出现挑战它的明显的缺点。由于管理层开发的变化,它是更频繁地使用和重视政治领域以及私人和公共部门。在管理中,越来越自由的权力,已达到了一个更为重要和引人注目的阶段,引发了对工作和组织的分析,更重视管理本身的分析。这是关键的管理策略的主要背景。一般说来,在20世纪90年代英国出现了合作医疗,但它的出现受到了一些政治和商业变革的影响,包括新的权利运动和管理的危机。CMS需要能力不言而喻根据Fournier和灰色(2000)。关键的管理研究表明,提出反抗意见管理思想的传导,这种情况应调整和发展。在这篇文章中,批判性思维将被应用到探索的关系纳入细胞质雄性不育和主流理论本身。
主要分析
在决策中的参与的关键管理研究需要批判的态度对待管理实践作为一个知识体,要求革命(Fournier和灰色,2000)。根据这项声明,关键管理研究是基于对主流理论,旨在挑战“最好的选择”的观点与自然处理的观点。然而,关键管理学者实际上是从不同的特定社会的知识产权和社会科学发展的。多元文化和全球变化的趋势有助于这一事实,即没有一个普遍的原则,对临界和非临界的看法。因此,细胞质雄性不育与主流理论之间的关系是复杂的,一般都不能被普遍认为是普遍存在的。
合作医疗理论认为主流理论对工作的世界有有限的看法
从Fournier和灰色的意见,对主流理论未能全面了解工作世界。他们认为在管理实际情况,在一个组织或政治态度,应该是反性,变性和自反性。根据安L. Cunliffe声明(2003),辩论真理出现在许多社会领域包括哲学,语言学,自然科学以及其他。这场辩论是自反性的概念挑战主流社会科学共享世界的绝对的观点(伯勒尔&摩根,1979)。一般来说,关键的管理理论认为知识和人类的认识不稳定,这需要不断研究的事实,以更新真相。从我的角度来看,为Fournier和灰色认为主流理论提供工作世界的有限的观点,这是合乎逻辑的。因为历史和社会都植根于革命性的变化,知识只能是适用于时间,而不是普遍有用的几十年来。即使是所谓的真理和现实可能是普遍的和unchagable但是人类的认识是不断发展的观点与社会实践的参考变化。因此,研究的结果,自然科学的原则和结论的某些现象,被命名为“现实”或“真理”被限制到当代的社会条件,并值得进一步研究的时间去。因此,批判管理学研究认为,一个主流理论缺乏一个发展和全面的真理,原则和现实的意见。一般说来,对世界的认识的局限性在于在一定的社会条件和历史背景下,对现实社会的限制。另外,个人与他人和现实世界的连续经验将构建新的现实和真理的理解。主流的理论都未能探讨知识和真理的内在不稳定性(安,2003)。因此,从理论的角度对主流世界观忽视了历史的发展和人类实践

邦典论文essaylunwen.com
QQ:768093293
FACEBOOK:
www.facebook.com/papercustom
微博weibo.com/essaylunwen
微信公众号

点击次数:  更新时间:2015-10-25  【打印此页】  【关闭